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Technical Paper

A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion

A new concept for diesel combustion was investigated by means of numerical simulation, engine experiment, and combustion observation in order to realize a simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emission. This concept (HiMICS: Homogeneous charge intelligent Multiple Injection Combustion System) is based on pre-mixed compression ignition combustion combined with multiple injection. Combustion characteristics of HiMICS concept was investigated by comparing with both a standard single injection and a pilot injection. In HiMICS concept, the pre-mixture is formed by a preliminary injection performed during a period from the early stage of the induction stroke to the middle stage of the compression stroke. Modified KIVA-II code was used to predict engine performances and emissions of each injection method. The simulation results show a capability of considerable improvement in the trade-off relation between NOx emissions and fuel consumption of HiMICS.
Technical Paper

A Study on Cam Wear Mechanism with a Newly Developed Friction Measurement Apparatus

The requirements for emission control, lower fuel consumption and higher engine output have changed the engine valve train system to 4-valve/cylinder and higher cam lift designs, and these changes make the cam/tappet lubrication conditions more severe than before. Under such a working condition, there is a high possibility that cam/tappet surface damages such as scuffing, pitting and wear may occur. Among the damages, the wear of cam/tappet is the most difficult to predict since the wear mechanism still remains unclear. To understand the lubrication condition and therefore, the wear mechanism at the cam/tappet contact, friction was measured with a newly developed apparatus. Measurement results showed that the lubrication condition between cam and tappet is predominantly in the mixed and boundary lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion (2nd Rep. : Reduction of HC and CO Emission, and Improvement of Fuel Consumption by EGR and MTBE Blended Fuel)

A new concept for diesel combustion has been investigated by means of engine experiments and combustion observations in order to realize a simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions. The concept is based on pre-mixed compression ignition combustion combined with multiple injection. In this method, some part of fuel is injected at an early stage of the process to form a homogeneous lean pre-mixture, then the remaining fuel is injected at around the TDC in the same manner as a conventional diesel injection. The emissions, ROHR (rate of heat release), and combustion pictures of conventional combustion, pilot injection combustion, and this new combustion concept were compared and analyzed. Engine tests were carried out using a single cylinder research engine equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Boost-up in Hino EP100-II Turbocharged and Charge-Cooled Diesel Engine

Hino Motors, Ltd. has added to its line of charge-cooled engines for heavy duty trucks a higher power version which is called EP100-II. To meet the recent customers' demands for rapid transportation with better fuel economy, this engine was developed on the uprating program for the original EP100 which was introduced in 1981 as the first Japanese turbo-charged and air to air chrge-cooled engine. EP100-II has the same displacement as the original EP100, 8.8 liters, and is an in-line six cylinder engine with 228kW (310PS)/2,100rpm (JIS) output that provides the world's utmost level specific output of 25.8 kW (35.1PS)/ liter. Also this engine achieved a maximum BMEP of 16.8 bar/1,300 rpm and best BSFC of 199 gr/kWh at 1,500 rpm. This paper describes the advanced technology for increasing horsepower and improving fuel consumption such as the so-called multi harmonized inertia charging system, the electronically controlled waste gate valve of turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure and Fuel Properties on Particulate Emissions from H.D.D.I. Diesel Engine

For the 1990's diesel engines, particulate control has been an important problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss emission control needs for heavy duty diesel truck engines for the 1990's. This paper will focus on the factors such as fuel injection pressure and fuel properties which most affect particulate emission. The characteristics of diesel spray in the atmosphere and also actual combustion of a turbocharged and charge-cooled H.D. D.I diesel engine were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 50 to 150 MPa. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment. Though Bosch smoke level, fuel consumption and combustion period decreased with the rise of injection pressure, particulate emission in EPA transient test cycle did not decrease dut to an increase of SOF.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art; Hino High Boosted Diesel Engine

In the Japanese heavy duty truck market, demands of improved fuel economy and lighter vehicles to increase load capacity, and further improvements in emissions are constantly increasing. To satisfy these requirements, basically a smaller sized and higher boosted diesel engine is effective, because such an engine has a compact size and light weight, and shows improved fuel consumption due to a relatively lower frictional loss. On the basis of this concept Hino introduced the original EP100 in 1981 as the first Japanese turbocharged and air to air charge-cooled engine. Since then Hino has made many efforts to improve the engines and develop new technologies.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Van Type Truck Aerodynamics

To reduce the vehicle fuel consumption at high speed, it is very effective to minimize the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, which forms most of the vehicle running resistance at high speed. This paper presents a reduction of the aerodynamic resistance of van type truck through the wind tunnel tests using 1/5 scaled model. Firstly, the aerodynamically desirable cab shape for cargo type truck is investigated by changing main cab shape factors such as corner curvatures. Secondly, several effective attachments for Van type truck are investigated, and lastly, the effect of these aerodynamic improvements on the fuel consumption are clearified by vehicle running test.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Development of a Combustion System for a Light Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

A new combustion system for a light duty D.I. diesel engine was developed, and a 3.5 ton payload truck (6.5 ton G.V.W.) equipped with this D.I. diesel engine and this combustion system realized good fuel economy and lower exhaust gas emission. Generally, light duty vehicles have to operate over a wide engine speed range. Therefore application of a D.I. diesel engine to light duty vehicles is difficult because of combustion tuning requirements over a wide engine speed range. Up to now, most of the diesel engines for light vehicles have been of the I.D.I. type. But the D.I. diesel engine has an evident advantage of lower fuel consumption. In these circumstances the authors developed a new combustion chamber shape for a small D.I. diesel engine with turbulence induced intake port and optimum fuel injection equipment. Various combustion chamber geometries were tested and evaluated.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Electronically Controlled Mechanical Automatic Transmission for Heavy Duty Trucks and Buses

Hino Motors had developed an electronically controlled mechanical automatic transmission and employed it for the ′85 models of large size buses, and also ′86 models of heavy/ medium duty trucks. This system gives minimum fuel consumption and even smoother/easier driving than an automatic transmission with torque converter, by controlling an engine also with a transmission and employing an oil spray clutch. The trade name of this system is EE-Drive which means easy and economy drive.
Technical Paper

Effect of Combustion Chamber Configuration on In-Cylinder Air Motion and Combustion Characteristics of D.I. Diesel Engine

A new combustion system for a light duty D. I. diesel engine was developed and introduced (1)*. The combustion chamber, which was used in the combustion system, has 4 concaves on the periphery of the inner wall and was calld HMMS-III. This combustion chamber realized better fuel consumption and lower smoke level over a wide speed range. However, the effects of HMMS-III combustion chamber on in-cylinder air motion and combustion characteristics were not yet clarified in the previous paper. In this study, in order to clarify the effects of HMMS-III combustion chamber on in-cylinder air motion and characteristics, analysis of flow direction and streak line via oil film method was carried out in comparison with flat dish and re-entrant type combustion chambers. Further, measurement of in-cylinder air motion by L.D.V. and observation of mixture formation and burning process via high speed schlieren photography were carried out.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of and Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Dimple Texturing on Liner Surface for Reduction of Friction between Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore

Reducing friction between the piston ring and cylinder is an effective way of meeting the demand for lower fuel consumption in vehicle engines. To that effect, the authors have proposed a new and efficient friction reduction treatment for the cylinder. At first glance, this treatment seems similar to typical microtexture treatments, but it is built on a different approach. Through a rig tester, it was confirmed that optimizing the shape of the dimples and the treatment area for the cylinder improves FMEP between the piston ring and the cylinder liner by 17%. This report presents an analysis of the test results to explain the mechanism by which this effect is achieved. Fuel consumption was measured in an actual engine, and a maximum fuel consumption improvement of 3.2% was confirmed after conversion to the Japanese heavy duty vehicle fuel economy standards (Category T2). Lubricating oil consumption, blow-by and durability were also examined.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Rankine Cycle Generating System for Heavy Duty HV Trucks

In heavy duty (HD) trucks cruising on expressway, about 60% of input fuel energy is wasted as losses. So it is important to recover them to improve fuel economy of them. As a waste heat recovery system, a Rankine cycle generating system was selected. And this paper mainly reports it. In this study, engine coolant was determined as main heat source, which collected energies of an engine cooling, an EGR gas and an exhaust gas, for collecting stable energy as much as possible. And the exergy of heat source was raised by increase coolant temperature to 105 deg C. As for improving the system efficiency, saturation temperature difference was expanded by improving performance of heat exchanger and by using high pressure turbine. And a recuperator which exchanges heat in working fluid between expander outlet and evaporator inlet was installed to recover the heat of working fluid at turbine generator. Then a working fluid pump was improved to reduce power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Development of Road's Gradient Anticipatory Algorithm for Hybrid Heavy Duty Truck

For the purpose of reducing fuel consumption, a hybrid heavy duty truck was considered. Generally, HV (Hybrid Vehicle)'s energy is regenerated from deceleration energy in urban area. Hybrid heavy duty truck's energy is regenerated from potential energy on highway. Under this circumstance, some portion of energy may not be accumulated, because capacity of HV battery is limited. In order to maximize accumulating energy in the next descent, HV battery's energy shall be adequately reduced beforehand. This can be achieved by optimizing motor assist torque considering road's altitude and gradient. In this paper, performance of the algorithm is discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Fuel Consumption, High Durability, and Low Emissions J-Series Engines

Environmental protection is now one of the most important social concerns in the world. In 1998, emission controls in the US required the reduction of NOx by 20% from the 1994 limit. Hino Motors has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks that meet the US 1998 emissions regulations. The engines comprise turbocharged and aftercooled 4- and 6-cylinder engines of the same cylinder bore and stroke. The engines feature a 4-valve system, OHC valve train design, centered nozzle arrangement, and an optimum combustion chamber design, which achieved uniform combustion. With these features, the maximum combustion temperature was decreased, and hence reduced the NOx, smoke, and PM emissions. A muffler integrated with a catalytic converter (catalytic muffler) was adopted to reduce PM emissions further. The engines with the catalytic muffler have successfully met the US 1998 emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

Study of 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst System for HD Diesel Engine

A 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalyst system is one of potential after-treatment technology to meet stringent NOx and PM emissions standards as Post New Long Term (Japanese 2009 regulation) and US'10. Concerning NOx reduction using NSR catalyst, a secondary fuel injection is necessary to make fuel-rich exhaust condition during the NOx reduction, and causes its fuel penalty. Since fuel injected in the high-temperature (∼250 degrees Celsius) exhaust instantly reacts with oxygen in common diesel exhaust, the proportion of fuel consumption to reduce the NOx stored on NSR catalyst is relatively small. A 2-LEG NSR catalyst system has the decreasing exhaust flow mechanism during NOx reduction, and the potential to improve the NOx reduction and fuel penalty. Therefore, this paper studies the 2-LEG NSR catalyst system. The after-treatment system consists of NSR catalysts, a secondary fuel injection system, flow controlled valves and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF).
Technical Paper

Hino J-Series Diesel Engines Developed for The U.S. 2004 Regulations with Superior Fuel Economy

Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.