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Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

A Single-chip RISC Microcontroller Boarding on MY1998

This paper presents a single-chip 32bit RISC microcontroller boarding on MY1998 dedicated to highly complicated powertrain management. The high performance 32bit RISC CPU provides the only solution to meet requirements of drastic CPU performance enhancement and integration. Furthermore, a 32bit counter, based on a 20 MHz clock, and a 32bit multiplier make possible misfire detection and precise analysis of the engine management strategy, especially cylinder individual air-fuel ratio control.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control System Using Estimated Torque

An automotive powertrain total control system using estimated output shaft torque has been investigated in order to enhance drivability and improve fuel economy. The system provides efficient control for both the engine and transmission which leads to an enhancement in drivability by reducing shocks during gear shifts. This paper describes a new smooth gear shift control method using the total control system. By use of the estimated output shaft torque, it is possible to detect accurately the fluctuation condition and the start time of the inertia phase, which are important factors affecting shock occurrence. Torque feedback, got from estimated torque, was applied to the control of engine output shaft torque during shifts. The optimum hydraulic pressure, also got from estimated torque, was applied to the clutch of the transmission during shifts.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation During Cold Starting and Warm-up in Spark Ignition Engines

A thermodynamic analysis of mixture formation in cylinders that takes into account mixture inhomogeneity and the wall film is presented. Conditions for obtaining low hydrocarbon emission are clarified analytically as a function of the fuel mass of the wall film and inhomogeneity of the mixture. Optimum processes for atomizing and vaporizing fuel are presented to reduce the inhomogeneity and the fuel mass of the film.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis for the Small Positive Pressure Control System of CEEF

It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
Technical Paper

Development of a Three-Dimensional Bird's-eye View Map Drawing Technique for Car Navigation Systems

In this paper, a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) bird's-eye view map drawing technique for car navigation systems is described. Conventional navigation systems give pseudo-perspective views which can not express ruggedness like hills and valleys. Our newly developed navigation system can display undulation of the land from viewpoints above and behind the current position, so that ups and downs of roads along with the driver's destination can be seen easily. The 3D-road map is not only effective during navigation but also during route planning, because it assists in searching for fine views before travel. In order to achieve the 3D-map view, we developed graphics software libraries, which work on a 32-bit RISC processor and on a low-cost graphics accelerator LSI with texture mapping capability. The graphics software libraries are constructed with three stages, the perspective projection stage, visible-surface determination stage, and rendering stage.
Technical Paper

A State Adaptive Control Algorism for Vehicle Suspensions

This paper describes a state adaptive control method for vehicle suspensions proposed by Hitachi, Ltd. The objective of the control is to improve riding comfort and driving stability in reaction to road iregularities, exterior wind forces, and changes in vehicle loads as well as in reaction to inertial changes during cornering, breaking, and accelerating. The objective is attained by making considerable use of the relative displacement data between the body and the suspension. The state adaptive control system includes four shock absorbers whose damping forces can be tuned in three stages, four height sensors which measure the relative displacement, a vehicle speed sensor, and a microcomputer which decides the optimal damper stage. The validity of the proposed control method is shown through computer simulations and actual driving experiments. Vertical acceleration is reduced by about 55 % by switching from the soft damper to the hard damper in a computer simulation.
Technical Paper

Optical Multiplexed Transmission System using High Temperature Polymer Fiber

A multiplexed transmission system utilizing newly developed optical polymer has been proposed. The system is composed of a star-shaped optical network, in which optical signals can be transmitted bi-directionally through a fiber and optical branches between the central and local controllers. The new polymer optical fiber has been developed and adopted for this system, and it was designed to be durable to the high temperature in automotive engine rooms. The high temperature resistibility of the fiber has been achieved with utilization of a thermo-setting resin for the core materials. The optical loss characteristics of the fiber is as low as 0.50 dB/m at 660 nm wavelength.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor Utilizing Ion Transportation in Zirconia Electrolyte

To detect an air-fuel ratio in wide range is very important to control the automotive engines with low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions. Although the application of zirconia electrolyte for this purpose has been proposed by the authors several years ago, there remained several problems due to the contamination of gas diffusion apertures which are exposed to the exhaust gas environment. Here the behavior of ions transported in zirconia electrolyte have been analyzed to optimize the structure and characteristics, and to guarantee the long life operation of sensor. Gas contents and their reactions in combustion process under the wide range air-fuel ratio have been analyzed, and these results were reflected to the analysis of ion transportation in zirconia electrolyte. Experimental results supported the analytical results, and they showed the possibilities of long life operation of zirconia air-fuel ratio sensor utilizing ion transportation phenomena.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Class A Local Area Network System

The growing number of electronic components used in automobiles lately has given rise to problems concerning the increasing number, size and weight of the wiring harnesses. As one approach to resolving these problems, the authors proposed a multiplex method based on the direction of signal flow in 1988 (SAE880589). However, the need to reduce the number of wiring harnesses circuits further made it necessary to develop a more sophisticated system. This paper presents an on-board Class A local area network (LAN) system that overcomes the problems in conventional multiplexing systems through the use of a master-slave configuration, a polling selection method and a system that integrates of electronic circuits with switch modules.
Technical Paper

Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Spark Ignition Engine Using Optical Combustion Sensor

Mixture formation and the ignition process in 4 cycle 4 cylinder spark ignition engines were investigated, using an optical combustion sensor that combines fiber optics with a conventional spark plug. The sensor consists of a 1-mm diameter quartz glass optical fiber cable inserted through the center of a spark plug. The tip of the fiber is machined into a convex shape to provide a 120-degree view of the combustion chamber interior. Light emitted by the spark discharge between spark electrodes and the combustion flames in the cylinder is transmitted by the optical cable to an opto-electric transducer. As a result, the ignition and combustion process which depends on the mixture formation can be easily monitored without installing transparent pistons and cylinders. This sensor can give more accurate information on mixture formation in the cylinders.
Technical Paper

Optical Fiber Gyroscopes for Automobiles

This paper reviews the technological aspects and characteristics of optical fiber gyroscopes, and discusses their automotive applications. The optical system of an all-fiber gyroscope and the fiber optic components to build it are described. An optical phase modulation scheme to improve the sensitivity and the signal processing for the modulated output are discussed. The specifications of some packaged optical fiber gyroscopes are explained. An earth's rotation detection experiment is demonstrated to show the higher performance. The potential automotive related applications of the gyroscope are forecasted. One of the off-board uses of the sensor is the vibration measurements of a vehicle. When used onboard, the optical fiber gyroscopes will improve the navigation accuracy. A navigation result utilized the sensor with a map matching algorithm is reported. The gyroscopes may also be applied to future chassis controls.
Technical Paper

Water Recycling System for CELSS Environment in Space

System configurations of water recycling for space use have been continued through theoretical and experimental studies. The water recycling system plays a central role in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which offers necessary environment and life styles in closed environment such as space stations, lunar bases, etc.. Membrane technology is a possible candidate for purifying waste water produced by crew use facility, plant cultivation facility, etc. In considerations of the system compactness realizing energy saving, membrane distillation has been revealed to be a suitable purification process. Ground experiments has been performed using membrane filtration processes and membrane distillation process. Thermopervaporation technology with hydrophobic membrane is utilized in the distillation process. The energy saving is achieved by thermal return of condensation energy.
Technical Paper

Real Time Control for Fuel Injection System with Compensating Cylinder-by-Cylinder Deviation

We have examined a new precise control method of the air fuel ratio during a transient state which provides improved exhaust characteristics of automobile engines. We investigated the measurement method for the mass of fresh air inducted by the cylinder, which is most important for controlling the air fuel ratio. The mass of fresh air must be measured in real time because it changes in each cycle during a transient state. With an conventional systems, it has been difficult to get accurate measurement of this rapidly changing mass of fresh air. The method we studied measures the mass of fresh air by using the intake manifold pressure and air flow sensors. During a transient state, the reverse flow of the residual gas from the cylinder into the intake manifold, which occurs at the first stage of the suction stroke, changes with each cycle. The mass of fresh air changes accordingly.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

The basic structure of a new engine control system for lean combustion is presented. A fuel atomizer is adopted to obtain a uniform mixture of fine fuel droplets, 40µm in diameter. A new air-fuel ratio sensor and an integrated control method for air flow are developed for precise and rapid response control of cylinder air-fuel ratios 8 to 26. Great improvements in both fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics are obtained by increasing the mean air-fuel ratio to 25 under cruising condition. There are made possible by the stable combustion provided by the fine mixture. This system provides the driver with quick vehicle response and good fuel economy, while ensuring smooth driveability.
Technical Paper

Wide-Range Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor, 1989

The detection range of an air-fuel ratio sensor is expanded in the rich A/F region. Using a simulation technique, the limiting cause of the detection range in the rich A/F region is identified as insufficient combustion rates of CO and H2 with O2 on the electrode, which prevent realization of a limited diffusion state which is necessary to detect the air-fuel ratio. Applying an improved diffusion layer to decrease the diffusion rates and an improved electrode to increase the combustion rates, it is demonstrated that the detection limit can be expanded to λ=0.6 while that of a conventional sensor is λ=0.8.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of Engine Revolution by a Chassis and Powertrain Dynamics Simulator

This paper discusses causes and the mechanism of surging, back and forth chassis oscillation which occurs in cars with electronically controlled multi-point gasoline injection systems. This occurs during sharp acceleration, engine braking deceleration, and low speed coasting, at rather low ratio gear positions. We conclude that the mechanism of surging is parametric coupled oscillation. This conclusion is based on experimental data analysts and parameter sensitivity analysis using a chassis and engine dynamics simulator. The elements of parametric coupled oscillation are: a forcing system composed of engine control systems, engine and power transmission systems; a resonance system composed of axle and frame-body translation systems; a feedback system composed of axle translation systems and wheel revolution systems.