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Journal Article

Advanced Design of Variable Compression Ratio Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1046
A Dual Piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. In order to ensure the strength of the Dual Piston, the design guidelines were established. There are two advantages of this design. One is the compactness and the compatibility with a mass production engine block. Another is less power consumption required during compression ratio switching. However, the durability is a challenge for this design because of the impact load during the switching driven by the inertial force of a reciprocating piston. In order to achieve a durable configuration, it was necessary to consider the dynamics of the stress after impact, from analysis of the impacting process during the switching. The analysis of stress and deformation mode was improved in accuracy by using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in the designing process.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Journal Article

Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

2010-04-12
2010-01-0746
Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body. Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.
Technical Paper

Prediction of CVT Transmission Efficiency by Metal V-Belt and Pulley Behavior with Feedback Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0855
A simulation technology has been developed to predict the transmission efficiency of a metal pushing V-belt and pulleys that make up the drive system of a continuously variable transmission (CVT). When a CVT operates in an actual vehicle, pulley thrust pressure is adjusted by feedback control to maintain a speed ratio. This feedback control has been implemented, for the first time, in an existing simulation that predicts the dynamic behavior of a metal V-belt using explicit structural analysis. The new simulation enables stable control of a target speed ratio when appropriate gains are set for each analysis condition.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency 6-speed Automatic Transmission

2010-04-12
2010-01-0858
A new 6-speed automatic transmission (AT) has been developed with the aim of enhancing fuel economy, raising efficiency, and achieving greater compactness. The unit was built on a parallel-shaft structure similar to the previous Honda AT, which has high torque transmission efficiency. The new AT was given more gear speeds and the ability to handle higher input torque from the engine. On the one hand, bolt structure for shaft tightening was implemented, the forward-reverse shift mechanism was placed on the input shaft and common gear trains are provided. As a result of these and other measures, the total length of the new transmission is 18 mm shorter than the previous model 5-speed AT. A multi-plate lock-up clutch (LC) structure with a separate chamber in the torque converter was also adopted so that the lock-up torque capacity could be increased and the LC control range expanded.
Technical Paper

Precise Fuel Control of Diesel Common-Rail System by Using OFEM

2010-04-12
2010-01-0876
Multiple injections that are necessary to reduce emissions, noise, and vibration of diesel engine have been accomplished by common-rail fuel injection system. Especially a fuel amount of each injection has to be tightly controlled, but actually there is a difference between an actual amount and a target one. Injection period will be determined according to a map in that the relation between injected amount and injection period is stated. But in the case of multiple injections, pressure wave caused by previous injections remain in a common-rail system at the time an injection second or later starts. Therefore, actual amounts injected will be different from target ones. In order to compensate the difference, the method that the influence of pressure wave on fuel amount injected is also investigated and injection period will be corrected is realized in an actual engine control system. Meanwhile, pressure wave propagation in common-rail has been studied.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Contribution of Body Flexibility to the Handling and Ride Comfort Performance of Passenger Cars

2010-04-12
2010-01-0946
Full vehicle multibody models are commonly used to improve the handling and ride comfort performance of passenger cars. When focusing on body, it is difficult to validate the simulation results as the forces at the body/suspension interface cannot be measured. Moreover, body results cannot be easily correlated to the handling perception because it is by nature subjective. In this paper, we present a new methodology based on experimental data to analyze the contribution of the body flexibility to the handling performance of a passenger car. This method, using operational measurements and body measurements, allows in a first step to identify the body forces and in a second step, to analyze the contribution of the body modes during handling maneuvers. The same process can be applied for ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Fraction in Intake Mixture on Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0086
The present study experimentally investigated the performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine with hydrogen added to the intake air at late diesel-fuel injection timings. The diesel-fuel injection timing and the hydrogen fraction in the intake mixture were varied while the gross heating value per second of diesel fuel and hydrogen was kept constant at a certain value. NO showed minimum at specific hydrogen fraction. The maximum rate of incylinder pressure rise also showed minimum at 10 vol% hydrogen fraction. The indicated thermal efficiency was almost constant or slightly increased with small amount of hydrogen. A combination of hydrogen addition and late diesel-fuel injection timing contributed to low temperature combustion, in which NO decreased without the increase in unburned fuel.
Technical Paper

Research into Optimal Specifications for Flexible Fuel Vehicle Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1097
Various plant-derived alternative fuels have been proposed in recent years as ways to curb the global warming that occurs from the CO2 that is emitted by internal combustion engines. One such fuel is bioethanol. In Brazil, flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) are used that can run on blends from 100% hydrous ethanol (E100) to gasoline containing 22% ethanol (E22). This research addresses the optimal specifications of a FFV engine. FFV engines use E100 and E22 in any ratio. E100 has a very high RON of approximately 110, while that of E22 is low at approximately 95. The researchers considered these characteristics when selecting a compression ratio capable of providing good performance at any ethanol blend ratio. Additionally, ethanol is a single-component fuel without low-boiling-point components, so it has poor combustion at low temperatures. In general, FFV engines are often built with one intake valve to enhance product usability at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Practical Application of a TBW System for Large Motorcycle with Improved Driving Feel, Sound Quality, and Layout Flexibility

2010-04-12
2010-01-1094
Honda R&D has developed a throttle-by-wire (TBW) system that meets the needs of motorcycles where the attitude of the vehicle body is controlled by operation of the throttle. To gain high response and following for the throttle valve, we employed a new adaptive control algorithm. The newly developed system has an idling combustion stabilization function and a three-dimensional control function for the throttle-opening map based on running gear and engine speed. With those functions, we improved the controllability of the motorcycle, especially for small throttle openings. Furthermore, we improved the feeling of the limiter control used in maximum-speed limitation. For the overall system, intake system related devices are consolidated to improve the layout flexibility and expand the mounting options on the motorcycle.
Technical Paper

Power Train for a New Compact Sporty Hybrid Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-1095
This paper presents a power train developed for a 2011-model compact sporty hybrid vehicle. The power train, developed based on existing mass-produced car components such as an engine, transmission, and Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system, takes advantage of the IMA system to strike a good balance of driving performance, fuel economy, and low exhaust gas emissions. The conventional concept behind a hybrid design was to use motor output to compensate for a power reduction caused by smaller engine displacement. For the development of this power train, a new approach was taken to utilize the motor output to create a better driving feel. Making full use of a good motor response and directness, the power train realized this sporty driving feel, unlike anything offered by conventional cars.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Introduction of a New Method of Solving Wear Problems Caused by the Swing Motion Occurring between the Roller and the Sliding Contact Surface

2010-04-12
2010-01-1055
In an attempt to decrease the amount of CO2 emitted by engines and yet improve engine output power, various approaches to the development of variable valve-lift mechanisms and the application of direct fuel injection and supercharger mechanisms are rapidly gaining popularity. In the case of the swing motion which takes place in variable valve-lift mechanisms, the relative speed between the two components reaches zero at the location where the load is high and the oil film tends to break, thereby leading to wear. Furthermore, the use of a supercharger and a direct injection device generates soot, which promotes further wear. Therefore establishing a reliable method for estimating wear has become a pressing issue. Wear problems caused by the swing motion occur during boundary lubrication, and we have devised a solution for them.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering System)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0993
With the objective of establishing the ultimate steering operation system for drivers, we developed, based on bioengineering considerations, the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system which mimicks the bi-articular muscles, as shown in Fig. 1 . The bioengineering advantages are as follows: (1) force can be exerted more easily, (2) the steering can be accomplished quickly, (3) the positioning can be done accurately, and (4) the burden on the driver can be reduced (less fatigue). The advantages of the vehicle in terms of its motion are as follows: (1) the line-traceability is improved, (2) the drift control is improved, (3) the lane-change capability is improved, and (4) the lap time and stability are improved. We would like to report on these advantages of the TLS system from a bioengineering standpoint, and also describe the results of some verification test results obtained from vehicles equipped with this new steering system.
Technical Paper

Study and Application of Prediction Method for Low Frequency Road Noise

2010-04-12
2010-01-0507
When a vehicle drives over road seams or a bumpy surface, low-frequency noise called drumming is generated, causing driver discomfort. The generation of drumming noise is closely related to the vibration characteristics of the suspension, body frame, and body panels, as well as the acoustic characteristics of the vehicle interior. It is therefore difficult to take measures to get rid of drumming after the basic vehicle construction has been finalized. Aiming to ensure drumming performance in the drawing review phase, we applied the Finite Element Method (FEM) to obtain acoustical transfer functions of the body, and Multi Body Simulation to get suspension load characteristics. This paper presents the results of the study of drumming prediction technology using this hybrid approach.
Journal Article

Development and Application of FM Multipath Distortion Rate Measurement System Using a Fading Emulator Based on Two-Stage Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0082
Abstract The suitability of FM radio receivers for automobiles has conventionally been rated by evaluating reception characteristics for broadcast waves in repeated driving tests in specific test environments. The evaluation of sound quality has relied on the auditory judgment due to difficulties to conduct quantitative evaluations by experiments. Thus the method had issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. To address these issues, a two-stage method generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed. The research further defined the multipath distortion rate, MDr, as an index for the sound quality evaluation of FM receivers, and the findings concerning the suitability of the evaluation of FM terminals for automobiles were reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Journal Article

Positioning Simulation Using a 3D Map and Verification of Positional Estimation Accuracy in Urban Areas Using Actual Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-0083
Abstract Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement using of lengthy simulation. In this study, actual measurement data in an urban area was obtained for long hours, and a simulation using 3D maps was implemented. A high precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in order to collect actual measurements and positional data at each measurement time. The data obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for both the simulation and the actual measurements.
Journal Article

Incoming Wave Estimation Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using a Virtual Array Antenna in Urban Reception Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0077
Abstract We developed “Two-Stage Method” that makes it possible to evaluate the automotive suitability of FM receivers by generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC. The major technological challenge for the Two-Stage Method was reproducing an actual radio wave environment on PC. It was necessary to estimate the characteristics of the FM radio wave environment in tests using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method. However, when the MUSIC method is applied to FM reception, restrictions in factors including the number of array antenna elements and the occupied bandwidth result in issues of separation performance in relation to multipath waves in urban environments. We therefore developed a MUSIC Method using a virtual array antenna, making it possible to create combinations of numbers of array and sub-array elements as desired, thus boosting multipath wave separation performance. This development was reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Journal Article

Concept for Improving Cost Effectiveness of Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0233
Abstract The practical application of heat recovery using thermoelectrics requires the realization of reasonable cost effectiveness. Therefore, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) structure that can compatibly increase efficiency and reduce cost was investigated with the aim of enhancing cost effectiveness. To increase efficiency, a method of using a vacuum space structure to reduce the TEG size was investigated to enable installation just after the close-coupled catalyzer, which is subject to many space restrictions. It was found that by making it possible to use high temperature exhaust heat, power generation efficiency can be increased to approximately twice that of the typical under floor installation. In addition, coupled simulation of heat transfer and power generation using FEM, 1D cost effectiveness simulations, and bench tests were performed with the aim of reducing cost.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Piston Skirt Scuffing via 3D Piston Motion Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1044
Abstract This paper describes the establishment of a new method for predicting piston skirt scuffing in the internal combustion engine of a passenger car. The authors previously constructed and reported a method that uses 3D piston motion simulation to predict piston slap noise and piston skirt friction. However, that simulation did not have a clear index for evaluation of scuffing that involves piston skirt erosion, and it impressed shortage of the predictive accuracy of a scuffing. Therefore, the authors derived a new evaluation index for piston skirt scuffing by actually operating an internal combustion engine using multiple types of pistons to reproduce the conditions under which scuffing occurs, and comparing with the results of calculating the same conditions by piston motion simulation.
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