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Video

A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-06-18
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Video

Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

2011-11-01
A new index for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U* , which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Presenter Tadashi Naito, Honda R&D Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid System for a Single-Seated Commuter Vehicle

1999-09-28
1999-01-3277
A hybrid system combining a 4-stroke, 50cc-gasoline-engine with an electric motor was developed, and the maximum vehicle speed achieved by the electric motor is 30 km/h. Either an electric motor or engine is selected as the power source according to the running condition, and it is switched automatically. A parallel hybrid system, the Modulated Hybrid System (MHS), was adopted. Therefore, the energy source of the electric motor can be charged by an external or an internal power source. The switch mechanism of the driving power source is simple by using a one-way-clutch. The driving force, the vehicle speed, and the remaining battery energy are the parameters for switching control of the driving power sources. In order to achieve smooth switching and quick responses, the electric motor output is controlled by the feedback of the driving torque.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight and Compact 1kVA-Class Portable Generator

1999-09-28
1999-01-3304
The development of the lightweight and compact EU1000i generator with a maximum output of 1kVA is presented. The technology applied to achieve the required levels of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and noise, and to provide a stable electrical power supply with low waveform distortion is described. The technology comprises of four elements: a high-speed, multi-pole, external rotor type alternator, a microcomputer-controlled sine wave inverter, a compact high-speed 4-stroke engine with electronic speed governing, and a lightweight frame with a two-level noise-damping system. Combination of these four elements of technology has achieved 50% less weight, 25-30% lower fuel consumption, and 7-9dB(A) less noise than the previous model. The emission levels of CO and of NOx + HC are also 30% and 65% lower than the 2000 CARB regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Die-Cast Parts for Welded Structure Manufactured by the Transition Flow Filling

1999-09-28
1999-01-3297
In general, welding of high-pressure die casting (DC) parts has been difficult due to gases trapped in the castings. This is a result of the high-speed turbulent flow condition of the DC process. These gases are liberated during welding and produce porosity in the weld joint. The Author had found the range where an enough welding quality was obtained without great drop in castability to the middle of the laminar flow and turbulent flow. This range has been defined as the transition zone. Moreover high strength Al-Mg-Ni alloy was developed by non-heat-treatment. The Transition Flow Filling Method(TFFM) has been developed, that can not only reduce the amount of trapped gases but also is applicable to standard high pressure die casting equipment. With this method, high quality DC parts can be produced that are weldable, strong and have high toughness.
Technical Paper

Development of the Directly Actuated Variable Valve Control System

1999-09-28
1999-01-3319
New valve control system (HYPER VTEC:Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control System) having valve inactive mechanism which engine power is made to be united to the environment conservation was developed for motorcycle engines of sport type having higher engine speed. Mass increase in the valve operating system of this system is kept to a minimum with a compact, simple mechanism. The system enables high engine speed up to 13,500 rpm without abnormal motion of valves, having high reliability and durability. In addition, the valve control system has the enhancement of fuel economy and the effect of decreasing the intake and exhaust system sound during 2-valve operation. The switching mechanism part of the operating valve number was manufactured by cold forging, and has decreased costs. This system has been adopted to the sport type motorcycle CB400SF for domestic model in 1999.
Technical Paper

The Application of the Statistical Design Support System Toward Optimization of Vehicle Safety Equipmen

1999-09-28
1999-01-3209
The “Statistical Design Support System” produces a new practical optimal design method. It can be used even on nonlinear behavior. The optimization can be carried out with this system using a small number of calculation results. The authors applied it to the design optimization of the occupant restraint system in order to reduce the injury criteria based on the crash simulation. In line with growing interest and improvements in technology on vehicle safety, it will be necessary to consider some different crash situations simultaneously. The authors made an optimal design taking into account the different collision conditions. This paper describes the effectivity analysis and the optimization.
Technical Paper

A Quick Warm-Up System During Engine Start-Up Period Using Adaptive Control of Intake Air and Ignition Timing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0551
Early activation of catalyst by quickly raising the temperature of the catalyst is effective in reducing exhaust gas during cold starts. One such technique of early activation of the catalyst by raising the exhaust temperature through substantial retardation of the ignition timing is well known. The present research focuses on the realization of quick warm-up of the catalyst by using a method in which the engine is fed with a large volume of air by feedforward control and the engine speed is controlled by retarding the ignition timing. In addition, an intake air flow control method that comprises a flow rate correction using an adaptive sliding mode controller and learning of flow rate correction coefficient has been devised to prevent control degradation because of variation in the flow rate or aging of the air device. The paper describes the methods and techniques involed in the implementation of a quick warm-up system with improved adaptability.
Technical Paper

Development of the High-Power, Low-Emission Engine for the “Honda S2000”

2000-03-06
2000-01-0670
The two liter DOHC-VTEC engine developed for the Honda S2000 produces 179kW (240HP, which is 120HP per liter). It is the highest output power among all naturally aspirated two liter engines ever mass-produced. It also achieves an exhaust emission level within National LEV standards. The new engine utilizes a redesigned VTEC cylinder head, in which MIM (metal injection molding) rocker arms are used. The new cylinder block with a ladder frame structure for its lower part, a newly developed camshaft drive chain and gear system and a metal honeycomb catalyst with an air pump start-up system are also utilized.
Technical Paper

A Vibration Transfer Reduction Technique, Making Use of the Directivity of the Force Transmitted from Road Surface to Tire

2000-03-06
2000-01-0096
While there has been an empirical rule telling suspension designers that a slight rearward inclination of the wheel travel locus could improve ride harshness performance, there has not been any quantitative proof on it, to the extent of authors' knowledge. The authors planned to analyze the phenomenon by quantitatively measuring the force transmission via suspension, to find out that the amplitude of longitudinal force transmission to the sprung mass changes significantly depending on the above inclination angle. Further investigation has lead to a conclusion that the force transmission from ground to tire has a sharp directivity. And that the relationship between this direction and the direction of wheel travel is a dominant factor, which decides the magnitude of longitudinal force transmission to the sprung mass. In order to make use of the finding, the optimal wheel center locus inclination in side view has been studied, to minimize the longitudinal force transmission.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburizing Steel for Crankshafts

1999-03-01
1999-01-0601
The purpose of our research is to omit normalizing after hot forging in nitrocarburized crankshafts. Based on fundamental studies about the influence of chemical composition on as-forged and nitrocarburized properties, the authors have developed a new nitrocarburizing steel composed of 0.3% carbon, 0.8% manganese, and 0.02% nitrogen. The newly designed crankshafts for compact cars using the steel can be in use without the normalizing and have equivalent properties to conventional crankshafts, though the treatment is an indispensable process for conventional ones.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2000-06-19
2000-01-1870
In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

NOx Conversion Properties of a Mixed Oxide Type Lean NOx Catalyst

2000-03-06
2000-01-1197
Development is proceeding on catalysts which separate the NOx in lean exhaust gas by adsorption and then reduce the adsorbed NOx in combustion exhaust gas with the stoichiometric or a slightly richer air fuel ratio, as well as exhaust conversion technology that uses these catalysts. Amidst this research it has been found that catalysts containing mixed metal oxides exhibit superior NOx adsorption performance, so the authors prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst by adding precious metals and promoters, etc. The resulting catalyst has high heat resistance and also offers excellent SOx durability. These properties were presumed to be due to an adsorbent including the mixed metal oxide, and the relation between the physical properties and NOx conversion properties of the catalyst was investigated.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Ambient Roadway and Vehicle Exhaust Emissions-An Assessment of Instrument Capability and Initial On-Road Test Results with an Advanced Low Emission Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1142
The College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology at the University of California, Riverside and Honda Motor Company are conducting a cooperative research program to study the emission characteristics and evaluate the environmental impact of advanced technology vehicles designed to have emission rates at, or below, the California ULEV standard. This program involves a number of technical challenges relating to instrumentation capable of measuring emissions at these low levels and utilizing this instrumentation to gather data under realistic conditions that will allow assessments of the environmental impact of these advanced vehicle technologies. This paper presents results on the performance and suitability of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) based on-board measurement system developed principally by Honda R&D for this task. This system has been designed to simultaneously measure vehicle exhaust and ambient roadway pollutant concentrations.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Analyzer for Use on Advanced Low Emission Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-1140
Measuring the real-world performance of emission control technologies is an important aspect in the development of advanced low-emission vehicles. In addition, data acquired from such measurements can be used to improve the accuracy of air quality predictive models. Honda has developed an on-board sampling/analysis system capable of measuring on-road emissions at ULEV levels and below. Ambient air can be analyzed simultaneously. This FTIR-based system can measure several species; this paper will focus on NMHC, NOX, and CO. Techniques were developed to address the challenges associated with acquiring accurate real-time data at concentrations below 1 ppm in an on-road vehicle. Validation studies performed with reference gases and vehicle exhaust indicate a very good correlation between the on-road analyzer system and classic bench methods for all target compounds. Dynamic studies performed by the University of California, Riverside, also show good correlation.
Technical Paper

Secondary O2 Feedback Using Prediction and Identification Type Sliding Mode Control

2000-03-06
2000-01-0936
Recently, much research has been carried out on secondary O2 feedback which performs control based on the output from a secondary O2 sensor (HEGO sensor). In this research it has been found that, regardless of catalyst aging conditions, the HEGO sensor output indicates 0.6 V when the catalyst reduction rate is maintained at the optimum level. Therefore, based on this relationship, we designed an accurate secondary O2 feedback with the aim of reducing emissions by stabilizing the HEGO sensor output to 0.6 V. In order to realize this control, it was necessary to solve the three problems of nonlinear catalyst characteristics, dead time characteristics, and changes in dynamic characteristics due to catalyst aging conditions. Therefore, these problems were solved using the modeling approach of robust control and a new robust adaptive control named Prediction and Identification Type Sliding Mode Control.
Technical Paper

Shifting Mechanisms and Variation of Frictional Coefficients for CVT Using Metal Pushing V-Belts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0840
In order to reveal the shifting mechanisms for CVT using a metal pushing V-belt, three shifting rates were introduced. The belt motion in the pulley groove was also characterized using mean coefficients of friction as parameters, which identify the slippage condition of the belt in the pulley groove. The experimental results showed that one of shifting rates, dR/ds was almost constant in the narrowing pulley regardless of both rotational speed and transmitted torque. Here, R is the belt pitch radius in the pulley and s is the length measured along the belt pitch line. This fact indicates that the shifting is primarily governed by elastic deformation of blocks of the belt. Power transmitting states were also evaluated using a different type of lubricating oil whose nominal coefficient of friction was higher than that for the conventional AT oil. The observed mean coefficients of friction vary due to oil although the basic response of the CVT unchanged.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Motor-Driven Gearshift System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0745
Recently, for passenger cars, hand operated gearshift systems have been made available by some manufacturers for the purpose of easy gearshift operation and to make driving more fun. For adapting such a system to an ATV (All Terrain Vehicle), which is used mainly for agriculture and leisure, the whole system should be compact and lightweight. It is also necessary for the clutch to be engaged properly under various running conditions. This gearshift system performs both engaging and disengaging of the clutch and moving the gearshift spindle with one motor. Since this system is controlled by calculated engine speed, vehicle speed and gear position, suitable gear shifting is realized under various running conditions. For optimal clutch control, there is a reversing point for the decreasing and increasing of engine speed for each gearshift. This accelerates the clutch engagement speed and makes quick returning of the gearshift spindle.
Technical Paper

Reduction Technologies for Evaporative Emissions in Zero Level Emission Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0771
We have conducted technical research to achieve levels of evaporative emissions very close to zero. In the conventional fuel tank system, the internal pressure in the fuel tank and vapor lines varies between positive and negative values due to the outside temperature, rendering emission control and performance in the actual vehicle very difficult. We have developed a control system utilizing the negative pressure in the engine intake manifold to maintain a negative pressure (vacuum) in the fuel tank at all times. By always maintaining such a vacuum, the variation in internal pressure that depends on diurnal variation in ambient temperature and the rise in internal pressure that depends on engine load, have been eliminated, enabling emissions from the fuel system to be reduced significantly. This paper gives an outline of the technology mentioned above.
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