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Technical Paper

How to Predict Powertrain Vibration at the Engine Mounting Points Under Running Conditions

2001-04-30
2001-01-1592
Recently, the eigenvalue analysis and the frequency response analysis using the finite element method (FEM) is commonly used, since the vibration characteristic of the powertrain is an important specification which causes the influence on the booming noise and the durability of each parts. However, the eigenvalue analysis and the frequency response analysis cannot take into account of the dynamic behavior of the cranktrain and thenonlinear characteristics. This paper presents a new approach which considers the dynamic behavior of the crankshaft and thenonlinear oil film characteristics of the main bearings and the engine mounts for accurately predicting the vibration level at the engine mounting points under running conditions. By applying this approach to an in-line four cylinder engine, the predicted vibration level is reasonably comparable with experimental result.
Technical Paper

Development Procedure for Interior Noise Performance by Virtual Vehicle Refinement, Combining Experimental and Numerical Component Models

2001-04-30
2001-01-1538
This paper summarizes the development of a predictive vibro-acoustic full vehicle model of a mid-size sedan and focuses on the engineering analysis procedures used to evaluate the design performance related to engine induced noise and vibration. The vehicle model is build up from a mixture of test-based and finite element component models. FRF Based Substructuring is used for their assembly. The virtual car model is loaded by engine forces resulting from indirect force identification. This force-set includes combustion, inertia, piston slap and crank bearing forces, for engine harmonics from 0.5 to 10th order. Such forced response analysis yields vibration levels at every component, at every interface between components, and interior noise predictions. The target is to provide the vehicle NVH manager with the insight required to identify major causes for peak noise levels and to set targets and develop an action plan for every component design team.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vaporizing Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Sprays in a Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1231
Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Technical Paper

Development of the Motor-Assist System for the Hybrid Automobile--The Insight Development of the Motor-Assist System for a Hybrid Car--Insight

2000-11-01
2000-01-C079
A motor-assist system has been developed and employed for the "Insight' hybrid car. The system consists of an internal combustion engine as the primary power source, with an electric motor placed around the engine's crankshaft. Such construction reduces the system's volume significantly and offers more flexibility for the power plant layout. The system's functions include regeneration during braking, an idle stop mechanism, driving power assistance, and power supply for the 12V electrical system. A proper energy management method for various driving modes has been established by combining these functions, and fuel economy is significantly improved as a result. As another control feature, an active motor vibration control system compensates the idling vibration that is unique to three-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stress Distribution of Timing Belts by FEM

1997-02-24
970919
A model of a timing belt analyzed by FEM (a general non-linear finite element program:ABAQUS) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates belt cord stress. Analysis revealed a good correlation between the experimental and computed results of stress distribution of the belt cord. Through calculation, it was discovered that belts broke near the tooth root, which is the point of maximum stress of the cord.
Technical Paper

Honda 3.0 Liter, New V6 Engine

1997-02-24
970916
For a 1997 model year passenger car, Honda has released an all-new 3.0 liter, transversely mounted, SOHC VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) V6 engine. This compact, light-weight, state-of-the-art V6 engine achieves 147 kW @ 5500 rpm, improves fuel economy, and uses regular unleaded fuel. This is the world's first SOHC VTEC V6 engine, and the first V6 to be manufactured in the United States by Honda.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Motorcycle Behavior of the Moment of Inertia of the Crankshaft

1997-02-24
971060
The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
Technical Paper

Improving the Exhaust Emissions of Two-Stroke Engines by Applying the Activated Radical Combustion

1996-02-01
960742
The improvement of the exhaust emission and fuel consumption in the conventional two-stroke engines would be urgent. Our previous papers have suggested that the timing controlled auto-ignition, namely Activated Radical Combustion(AR combustion) could be a solution for that. In this time, the AR combustion was applied to a 250 cm3 motorcycle for the intention of commercialization of the AR engine. The alternating phases between AR combustion and SI combustion were analyzed and successfully improved the typical pinking noise. The AR combustion finally decreased the HC emission by approximately 60% in the EC 40 emission evaluation mode. As the power units for the small motorcycles or outboards, two-stroke engines are yet majority. That is because they have advantages such as higher power output, simpleness and compactness of the structure, at the same time, their drawbacks in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are also pointed out in the issues of preserving the environment.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Composites for Cylinder Liners

1994-03-01
940847
There are several all-aluminum cylinder blocks. A typical example is a mono-block cylinder of alusil alloy produced by low pressure die casting. This material's resistance to abrasion and seizure, however, is not satisfactory for motorcycle; in addition, long processing time is another disadvantage. To cope with these problems, the authors developed a light and highly productive all-aluminum cylinder block with a cast-in liner through die casting. The liner is made from powder metallurgy composite (PMC) with 3 to 5 % alumina and 0.5 to 3 % of graphite additives. The PMC reconciles abrasion resistance and machinability. The hardness deterioration of the composite due to the heat at die casting is avoided by using heat-resistant rapidly-solidified powders, made from an aluminum-silecon-iron alloy, for the matrix.
Technical Paper

Honda New In-Line Five Cylinder Engine-Noise and Vibration Reduction

1990-02-01
900389
Extensive studies in various technological fields have been conducted to determine the most appropriate engine configuration (arrangement and number of cylinders) for Honda's next-generation compact luxury automobiles. One of the basic concepts incorporated into these models include an ‘exhilarating drive’. Studies in the noise/vibration field disclosed that noise/vibration levels must be reduced while simultaneously realizing linearity in noise/vibration increase. As a result, an in-line five cylinder engine was chosen for this purpose. Additionally, Honda designed a new five-point engine mount system for a longitudinally-mounted engine in its FWD layout. Crankshaft rumbling noise in the in-line five cylinder engine was proven to be caused by crankshaft torsional resonance, as found in previous research of in-line four and six cylinder engines. This noise deteriorates linearity sensation.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Power Steering

1991-01-01
910014
A new electric power steering (EPS) was developed which uses an electric motor to provide assistance. It is a system combinning the latest in power electronics and high power motor technologies. The development was aimed at enhancing the existing hydraulic power steering's energy efficiency, driver comfort as well as increasing active stability. This paper describies the overall concept of EPS and outlines the components and control strategies using electronics. The EPS was tested on a front wheel drive vehicle weighing 1000kg in front axle load. The results showed a 5.5% improvement in fuel economy. The EPS has also achieved returnability that gives the driver more moderate feelings matching the vehicle in action as well as the active stability control strategy for high speed driving.
Technical Paper

Development of the Variable Valve Timing and Lift (VTEC) Engine for the Honda NSX

1991-01-01
910008
The Honda variable valve timing and lift electronic control system (VTEC) is incorporated in the engine of the NSX sports car that is scheduled for sales in Europe this year. In the process of advancement of Honda's engine technology, VTEC was developed for much higher output and higher efficiency. This is actually the first system in the world that can simultaneously switch the timing and lift of the intake and exhaust valves. This system has made improvements in maximum output at high rpm, and also improved the low rpm range, such as idling stability and starting capability.
Technical Paper

Development of Programmed-Fuel Injection for Two-Stroke Cycle Racer Engine

1991-11-01
911224
An electronically controlled fuel injection system for controlling the air/fuel (A/F) ratio has been looked forward as a means for improving drivability, output characteristics, and fuel consumption of two-stroke cycle motorcycle racer engines. However, actual installation of such a system on a high output two-stroke cycle engine (which utilizes exhaust gas pressure pulsation effects) has been considered difficult for the following reasons. Fluctuation in the delivery ratio (L) during firing and misfiring becomes great due to effects from the exhaust pipe. Applying the control method used for conventional four-stroke cycle engines (by which the delivery ratio (L) is measured) would necessitate a large and heavy system. The authors have eliminated such problems by developing an electronically controlled fuel injection system, the PGM-FI (Programmed-Fuel Injection) system, which employs basic intake air flow data according to engine speed (NE) and throttle opening (θTH).
Technical Paper

The Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Metal and It's Application for Engine Block

1989-02-01
890557
The weight-saving requirements for automobiles are important. In order to produce a lighter engine, an aluminum block with cast-iron liners and a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy block have been developed. (1)*, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) We developed a new aluminum engine block which has the cylinder bore surface structure reinforced with short ceramic fiber. We also established technology suitable for mass-production including a fiber preform process and a non-destructive inspection method. In this paper, the optimum properties and production technology of MMC engine blocks are introduced. A portion of the paper is dedicated to the results of a comparison study between a new light-weight aluminum engine block, a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon engine block and an aluminum engine block with cast-iron liners.
Technical Paper

Spark Plug Voltage Analysis for Monitoring Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

1993-03-01
930461
The idea to monitor the combustion in an internal combustion engine and using the obtained data to control combustion in the engine has been around for some time now. There are two well-known methods, although in the capacity of lab experiments, which had been developed under this principle. One features the analysis of combustion pressure and the other features the analysis of ionic currents detected in the combustion gas. Although highly precise analysis can be achieved by the former, there are problems in the installation of sensors for detecting combustion pressure, also in the durability and cost of such sensors. As for the latter, there are also problems in installing sensors for detecting the ionic currents and the reliability of obtained data from such sensors is still questionable.
Technical Paper

Development of Elliptical Piston Engine for Motorcycle

1993-03-01
930224
Honda developed a 750cm3 V-4 engine adopting an elliptical piston, and began selling the “NR” motorcycle with the engine installed in 1992. The adoption of an elliptical piston and cylinder achieved a compact layout of eight valves, which consists of four intake valves and four exhaust valves per cylinder. This paper explains the features of an engine with such a layout, focusing on the following: 1) Multiple valves and short-stroke enable the 750cm3 engine to achieve 15,000rpm. 2) The engine is more compact and lightweight than an engine having the same displacement, and more powerful than one with twice as many cylinders (8 cylinders). Also, this paper describes the techniques giving improved blowby gas and oil consumption characteristics as related to the sealing property of the piston, cylinder and piston ring and achieving performance equivalent to a conventional motorcycle engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Equipped with Non-Throttling S.I. Engine with Early Intake Valve Closing Mechanism

1993-03-01
930820
To enable non-throttling operation of gasoline S.I. engine, we have manufactured engines equipped with a newly developed Hydraulic Variable-valve Train (HVT), which can vary its intake-valve closing-timing freely. The air-intake control ability of HVT engine is equivalent to conventional throttling engines. Combustion becomes unstable, however, under non-throttling operation at idling. For the countermeasure, newly designed combustion chamber has been developed. The reduction of pumping loss by the HVT depends on engine speed rather than load, and amounts to about 80 % maximum. A conventional engine-management system is not applicable for non-throttling operation. Therefore, new management system has been developed for load control.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

1992-02-01
920455
The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

A Development of a Light Weight and High Performance Aluminum Radiator

1992-02-01
920549
This paper introduces a new type of aluminum radiator that has been developed with the objective of high performance and light weight. Aluminum radiators have recently been replacing copper radiators because of their light weight, but the heat rejection of such conventional alminum radiators does not exceed that of copper radiators. Authors established the aluminum radiator not only being light weight but also having high performance through the following approaches. (1) Optimization of radiator core module. (2) Thickness reduction of tube and fin. (3) Development of aluminum alloys with improved corrosion resistance for tubes and fins. As a result, a new type single-row aluminum radiator has achieved 7% higher rejection at 50% lighter weight than those of copper double-row radiator.
Technical Paper

A High Power, Wide Torque Range, Efficient Engine with a Newly Developed Variablea-Valve-Lift and -Timing Mechanism

1989-02-01
890675
A variable valving system was developed. This system has two cam profiles, one for low speed and one for high speed. A 1.2-litre DOHC experimental engine using this system was made and mounted in the body of a 2-1itre class passenger car. Test results of this car were compared to those of the same car with its original engine. The test car showed better results in every area of driving performance, in mode-fuel-econorny and in noise tests. This paper presents the mechanism, operation and test results of this variable valving system, the 1.2-litre experimental engine and this passenger car. THE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY of the passenger car gasoline engine have been greatly improved: primarily as a response to exhaust-gas emission regulations and the oil crises. These improvements have been achieved mainly through the development of control technologies to optimize many parameters such as ignition timing and air fuel ratio precisely according to driving conditions.
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