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Technical Paper

Application of All Aluminum Automotive Body for HONDA NSX

A Sports car's high performance, pursued as its major design point, forces the car to be as light as possible. Because of this, the NSX's body and chassis is build by making the best use of aluminum. This paper describes the development of aluminum for the NSX, and the forming and connecting technologies needed to achieve an all aluminum body.
Technical Paper

Double-Wishbone Suspension for Honda Prelude

This paper describes the double wishbone suspension used in the Honda Prelude. This system is designed to improve handling and anti-dive performance via the layout of the suspension arms and the springs and dampers. It also allows a low hood line over the transverse mounted engine for this sports-type vehicle.
Technical Paper

New Proposal of Piston Skirt Form using Multi Objective Optimization Method

A multi-objective optimization model using a piston behavior simulation for the prediction of NV, friction and scuffing was created. This model was used to optimize the piston skirt form, helping to enable well-balanced forms to be sought. Optimization calculations, involving extended analyses and numerous design variables, conventionally necessitate long calculation times in order to achieve adequate outcomes. Because of this, in the present project data was converted into functions in order to help enable the complex piston skirt form to be expressed using a small amount of coefficients. Using the limit values for manufacturability and the degree of contribution to the target functions, the scope of design variables was restricted, and the time necessary for the analysis was significantly reduced. This has helped to enable optimal solutions to be determined within a practical time frame.
Technical Paper

Study and Application of Prediction Method for Low Frequency Road Noise

When a vehicle drives over road seams or a bumpy surface, low-frequency noise called drumming is generated, causing driver discomfort. The generation of drumming noise is closely related to the vibration characteristics of the suspension, body frame, and body panels, as well as the acoustic characteristics of the vehicle interior. It is therefore difficult to take measures to get rid of drumming after the basic vehicle construction has been finalized. Aiming to ensure drumming performance in the drawing review phase, we applied the Finite Element Method (FEM) to obtain acoustical transfer functions of the body, and Multi Body Simulation to get suspension load characteristics. This paper presents the results of the study of drumming prediction technology using this hybrid approach.
Technical Paper

Structure to Assist in the Prevention of Bimetallic Corrosion of Hybrid Doors

The use of low-density materials in body panels is increasing as a measure to reduce the weight of the vehicle body. Honda has developed an aluminum/steel sheet hybrid door that is more effective in reducing weight than an all-aluminum door. Because aluminum was used in the door skin, bimetallic corrosion at the connection between the aluminum and the steel sheets represented an issue. It was possible that the difference in the electrical potential of the two metals might promote corrosion at the connection between the aluminum door skin and the steel sheet door panel, in particular at the lower edge of the door, where rainwater and other moisture tend to accumulate, with the result that the appeal of the exterior of the door might decline.
Technical Paper

Application of Load Path Index U* for Evaluation of Sheet Steel Joint with Spot Welds

An attempt was made to apply the index U* in detail analysis of load paths in structural joints under static load, using as examples coupling structures of two joined frames with hat-shaped sections, and T-beam joint structures each including spot welds, both of which are widely used in automotive body structures. U* is a load path analysis index that expresses the strength of connection between load points and arbitrary points on a structure. It was possible to identify areas making up load paths by means of the magnitude of U* values, and to clarify the areas that should be coupled in order to achieve effective load transfer to contiguous members. In addition, because it is possible to determine whether or not each section of a structure possesses the potential for load transfer using U* analysis, the research also demonstrated that U* could be used as an indicator of joint structures providing efficient load transfer.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Power Performance Prediction in Outboard Motors for High-Speed Planing Boats using CFD Simulation

Predicting fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor for a high speed small planing boat are numerically challenging. The propeller is one of the most popular propulsion systems used for outboard motors. We focused our attention on the fact that the thrust performance of a propeller has a major impact on cruising fuel consumption and performance. We believe that we can numerically predict cruising fuel consumption, which has conventionally been estimated through experiential means, using accurate thrust performance measurements via CFD simulation without cavitations model. This study aims to develop a simulator that could quantitatively predict cruising fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor used for a high speed small planing boat. After comparing the CFD simulation of propellers against the results of model tests, the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Simplified Vehicle Model that Can Reproduce Car-Pedestrian Collisions

Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures. The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight and Compact 1kVA-Class Portable Generator

The development of the lightweight and compact EU1000i generator with a maximum output of 1kVA is presented. The technology applied to achieve the required levels of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and noise, and to provide a stable electrical power supply with low waveform distortion is described. The technology comprises of four elements: a high-speed, multi-pole, external rotor type alternator, a microcomputer-controlled sine wave inverter, a compact high-speed 4-stroke engine with electronic speed governing, and a lightweight frame with a two-level noise-damping system. Combination of these four elements of technology has achieved 50% less weight, 25-30% lower fuel consumption, and 7-9dB(A) less noise than the previous model. The emission levels of CO and of NOx + HC are also 30% and 65% lower than the 2000 CARB regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of IMA Motor for 2006 Civic Hybrid

Honda has employed IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) technology in the 2006 Civic Hybrid to enhance fuel efficiency and improve dynamic performance of a compact 4-door sedan. Our objective in developing the motor in the IMA system was to increase power, torque, and efficiency while maintaining the size of a previous motor. To achieve this aim, we focused on the following points: IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) rotor structure High performance magnet Flat wire coil Polygonal bus ring structure Integrated 3-phase connector As a result, motor power was increased by 50% and achieved a 3 point average increase in efficiency, enabling vehicle dynamic performance and fuel efficiency objectives to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Hollow, Weld-able Die-Cast Parts for Aluminum Motorcycle Frames

Using sand cores, the weld-able, hollow die-cast parts have been developed. For casting, the transition flow filling method is applied to reduce gas containment and to minimize damages to the core. In designing the products, the newly developed core stress prediction system by melt pressure distribution and the newly developed in-product gas containment prediction system have been applied. The hollow die-cast frame made by the new method attains a 30% increase in rigidity and 1kg reduction of weight.
Technical Paper

Improvement of visibility for vulnerable parties in traffic accidents

More than half of fatalities in traffic accidents in Japan are the vulnerable parties in such accidents (pedestrians, motorcycles, bicycles). In most of these accidents, the cause is collision involving automobiles. Therefore, reasoning that early detection of such vulnerable parties would lead to a reduction in accidents, we conducted research on the following three systems: - Honda Night Vision System - For night-time detection of pedestrians using infrared cameras. - Active Headlights - For assuring night-time field of vision by directing illumination in the direction of vehicle travel through lights coupled with steering wheel turn and so on. - Inter-Vehicle Motorcycle-Automobile Communication System (IVCS) - Notifies drivers of each other's presence by providing information through communications systems installed on both vehicles. The results from research on these systems show that their use can be expected to have a positive effect in reducing the occurrence of accidents.
Technical Paper

New Pretreatment and Painting Technology for All-Aluminum Automotive Body

The Honda NSX, made entirely of aluminum, introduces a concept of using chromium chromate as a method of chemical pretreatment. For other parts that contain a different type of metal, such as various parts of the chassis, a DACRO coating system as well as many other inventions are used. For the paint process itself, a new waterborne basecoat technology is also introduced to obtain a high-class appearance level for the NSX.
Journal Article

Study on Analysis of Input Loads to Motorcycle Frames in Rough Road Running

In this study, we developed a simulation method for rough road running condition to reproduce the behaviors of a vehicle body and to precisely estimate the input loads to the frame. We designed the simulation method focusing on a front fork model and a rider model optimized for this type of analysis. In the suspension model development, we conducted detailed measurement of the suspension characteristics on a test bench. Based on the yielded results, the friction force, as well as the spring reaction force and the damping force, was reproduced in the suspension model. The friction of the suspension varies depending on the magnitude of the reaction force associated with bending and this effect was also implemented in the model. Regarding the rider model, the actual behavior of a rider was investigated through the recorded motion video data and used to define the necessary degrees of freedom.
Journal Article

Vibration Reduction in Motors for the SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD

A new motor has been developed that combines the goals of greater compactness, increased power and a quiet drive. This motor is an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) that combines an interior permanent magnet rotor and a stator with concentrated windings. In addition, development of the motor focused on the slot combination, the shape of the magnetic circuits and the control method all designed to reduce motor noise and vibration. An 8-pole rotor, 12-slot stator combination was employed, and a gradually enlarged air gap configuration was used in the magnetic circuits. The gradually enlarged air gap brings the centers of the rotor and the stator out of alignment, changing the curvature, and continually changing the amount of air gap as the rotor rotates. The use of the gradually enlarged air gap brings torque degradation to a minimum, and significantly reduces torque fluctuation and iron loss of rotor and stator.
Journal Article

Strength Analysis of CFRP Composite Material Considering Inter-Laminar Fractures

The strength characteristic of CFRP composite materials is often dependent on the internal micro-structural fracture mode. When performing a simulation on composite structures, it is necessary to take the fracture mode into account, especially in an automobile body structure with a complex three-dimensional shape, where inter-ply fractures tend to appear due to out-of-plane load inputs. In this paper, an energy-based inter-ply fracture model with fracture toughness criteria, and an intra-ply fracture model proposed by Ladeveze et al. were explained. FEM analyses were performed on three-dimensional test specimens applying both fracture models and the simulated results were compared with experimental ones. Reproducibility of the fracture mode was confirmed and the importance of combining both models was discussed.
Journal Article

Differences between Air-Dam Spoiler Performances in Wind Tunnel and On-Road Tests

An air-dam spoiler is commonly used to reduce aerodynamic drag in production vehicles. However, it inexplicably tends to show different performances between wind tunnel and coast-down tests. Neither the reason nor the mechanism has been clarified. We previously reported that an air-dam spoiler contributed to a change in the wake structure behind a vehicle. In this study, to clarify the mechanism, we investigated the coefficient of aerodynamic drag CD reduction effect, wake structure, and underflow under different boundary layer conditions by conducting wind tunnel tests with a rolling road system and constant speed on-road tests. We found that the air-dam spoiler changed the wake structure by deceleration of the underflow under stationary floor conditions. Accordingly, the base pressure was recovered by approximately 30% and, the CD value reduction effect was approximately 10%.
Journal Article

Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vibration Reducing Effect on Vehicle Dynamics by Hydraulic Damper on Body Structure

This research investigated the mechanism of the effects of hydraulic dampers, which are attached to vehicle body structures and are known by experience to suppress vehicle body vibration and enhance ride comfort and steering stability. In investigating the mechanism, we employed quantitative data from riding tests, and analytical data from simplified vibration models. In our assessment of ride comfort in riding tests using vehicles equipped with hydraulic dampers, we confirmed effects reducing body floor vibration in the low-frequency range. We also confirmed vibration reduction in unsprung suspension parts to be a notable mechanical characteristic which merits close attention in all cases. To investigate the mechanism of the vibration reduction effect in unsprung parts, we considered a simplified vibration model, in which the engine and unsprung parts, which are rigid, are linked to the vehicle body, which is an elastic body equipped with hydraulic dampers.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Ductile Fracture Propagation of High Strength Steels in Automotive Structures

Initiation and propagation of ductile fractures in crashed automotive components using high strength steels are investigated in order to understand the mechanism of the fracture propagation. The fracture is often prone to occur at sheet edge in strain concentration zone at crash deformation. The fracture is extended intricately to inside of the structure, with the influence local stress and strain field. It is very important to predict the fracture initiation and propagation under crashed deformation for the reliable design of the light-weight structural by using ultra-high strength steels. In this study, 3-point bending tests are carried out with a hat-shaped part which have a notch and a hole to induce fracture. Three types of notch are machined by wire cut electric discharge process. The hole is located near the notch to investigate the influence on fracture propagation.