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Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Addition to Intake Mixture on Cyclic Variation of Diesel Engine

The present study experimentally investigated cyclic variation of combustion characteristics of a diesel engine with hydrogen added to the intake air in detail. As the result, there were three ignition modes: (1) hydrogen ignition mode, (2) hydrogen-assisted ignition mode, and (3) diesel-fuel ignition mode. Ignition timing fluctuated from cycle to cycle in each ignition mode and between one ignition mode and another mode. As the coolant temperature was increased, the number of cycles in diesel-fuel ignition mode decreased, and indicated thermal efficiency and cyclic variation was improved. In the case with the blow-by gas introduced to intake port, preflame reaction of blow-by gas first occurred, ignited hydrogen, and then diesel-fuel was ignited by hydrogen combustion in hydrogen ignition mode and hydrogen-assisted ignition mode.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Fuel Hose with Pressure Pulsation Reduction

Recently, the electronic fuel injection systems have been widely applied to small motorcycles including scooters. In the high pressure fuel lines, plastic hoses have been increasingly used instead of conventional rubber hoses. As the plastic hose is less elastic than the rubber hose, the fuel pressure pulsates more in the plastic hose. To cope with this issue, we have conducted researches on how the fuel pressure pulsation in the plastic hose affects the accuracy of fuel injection. Keeping our eyes on the pulsation damping effects derived from the changes of volume due to the expansion and contraction of hose when the pressure changes, we have established the analysis method for optimization of the inner diameter and the thickness of the hose utilizing CAE analysis. The newly-developed plastic hose is applicable to motorcycles having a single cylinder 250 cm3 engine using an injector of a high static flow rate.
Technical Paper

Development of a Magnetic Coupling Water Pump for a Four-Stroke 50cm3 Scooter Engine

In the development of a magnetic-coupling water pump, the pulling-out (disengagement) of a coupling that led to the stopping of an impeller was a concern. Upon analysis of the behavior of the magnetic coupling, presence of two types of the pulling-out was found, that is, the pulling-out resulting from a lack of transfer torque in the high-speed revolutions and the pulling-out due to the resonance of an inner magnet and an outer magnet. Main factors that affect the pulling-out are the angular velocity input to the drive side, the moment of inertia of the driven side, characteristics of the magnetic coupling, and a damping from coolant. Using a measurement and simulation of the behavior of the water pump, factors were analyzed and the process of pulling-out was clarified. As a result, design specifications that prevented the pulling-out were established.
Technical Paper

A Development of a Light Weight and High Performance Aluminum Radiator

This paper introduces a new type of aluminum radiator that has been developed with the objective of high performance and light weight. Aluminum radiators have recently been replacing copper radiators because of their light weight, but the heat rejection of such conventional alminum radiators does not exceed that of copper radiators. Authors established the aluminum radiator not only being light weight but also having high performance through the following approaches. (1) Optimization of radiator core module. (2) Thickness reduction of tube and fin. (3) Development of aluminum alloys with improved corrosion resistance for tubes and fins. As a result, a new type single-row aluminum radiator has achieved 7% higher rejection at 50% lighter weight than those of copper double-row radiator.
Technical Paper

Study on the Cooling Method of Car Engine Pistons - Part 2, Cooling Using Heat Pipes

In our preceding report [1], we showed that the thermal conductivity of a heat pipe dramatically improves during high-speed reciprocation. However, this cooling method has rarely been applied to car engine pistons because the thermal conductivity of commercially available heat pipes does not increase easily even if the pipe is subjected to high-speed reciprocation. In consideration of the data from our preceding report, we decided to investigate heat pipe designs for car engine pistons, propose an optimum design, and conduct thermal analysis of the design. As a result, we found that it is possible to transport heat from the central piston head area, where cooling is most needed, to the piston skirt area, suggesting the possibility of efficient cooling.
Technical Paper

Development of Cooling Fan Model and Heat Exchange Model of Condenser to Predict the Cooling and the Heat Resistance Performance of Vehicle

The cooling performance and the heat resistance performance of commercial vehicle are balanced with aerodynamic performance, output power of powertrain, styling, cost and many other parameters. Therefore, it is desired to predict the cooling performance and the heat resistance performance with high accuracy at the early stage of development. Among the three basic forms of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation), solving thermal conduction accurately is difficult, because modeling of “correct shape” and setting of coefficient of thermal conductivity for each material need many of time and efforts at the early stage of development. Correct shape means that each part should be attached correctly to generate the solid mesh with high quality. Therefore, it is more efficient and realistic method to predict the air temperature distribution around the rubber/resin part instead of using the surface temperature at the preliminary design stage.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Thermal System Development for Small BEV

The dynamic performance of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is affected by battery output power, which depends on state of charge (SOC) and the temperature of battery cells. The temperature of the batteries varies in particular with the environment, in which the user stores the vehicle, and the battery output power. It is therefore necessary to employ thermal management systems that can control the battery temperature within the optimal range under severely hot and cold conditions in BEVs. A highly sophisticated thermal management system and its operation strategy were developed to fulfill the above requirements. The powertrain components to be thermo-controlled were located into two coolant circuits having different temperature range. The compact and efficient front-end heat exchangers were designed to optimally balance the cooling performance of powertrain, cabin comfort, vehicle aerodynamics and the vehicle design.