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Journal Article

Differences between Air-Dam Spoiler Performances in Wind Tunnel and On-Road Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0609
An air-dam spoiler is commonly used to reduce aerodynamic drag in production vehicles. However, it inexplicably tends to show different performances between wind tunnel and coast-down tests. Neither the reason nor the mechanism has been clarified. We previously reported that an air-dam spoiler contributed to a change in the wake structure behind a vehicle. In this study, to clarify the mechanism, we investigated the coefficient of aerodynamic drag CD reduction effect, wake structure, and underflow under different boundary layer conditions by conducting wind tunnel tests with a rolling road system and constant speed on-road tests. We found that the air-dam spoiler changed the wake structure by deceleration of the underflow under stationary floor conditions. Accordingly, the base pressure was recovered by approximately 30% and, the CD value reduction effect was approximately 10%.
Technical Paper

3D-PIV Measurement and Visualization of Streamlines Around a Standard SAE Vehicle Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0161
In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
Technical Paper

Control Technology of Brake-by-Wire System for Super-Sport Motorcycles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0080
Super-sport motorcycles have shorter wheelbases than other category motorcycles. Due to this, strong braking occasionally causes large pitching motions to occur, including rear-wheel-lift. In order to reduce such pitching motions and achieve an effective braking force, the authors have developed a brake-by-wire system that uses a pressure sensor to detect the braking input pressure and an electric actuator to variably control the hydraulic pressure. This system makes it possible to precisely control the braking force compared with the previous ABS. Large pitching control was performed by the distribution of a front wheel and a rear-wheel braking forces, CBS (Combined Brake System), by using electronic control, and Brake-by-Wire has been suitable for sport riding. As a result, stable braking performance could be obtained without spoiling the handling characteristics of super-sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Intake Air Pressure Sensorless Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

2011-11-08
2011-32-0564
A new control system using O₂ feedback control has been developed as an alternative to intake air pressure sensors. This control method uses the operational condition compensation coefficient Kbu. This coefficient encompasses the state of the engine and environmental conditions such as atmospheric pressure, and corrects fuel injection in response to changes in these factors. Kbu makes it possible to control the amount of fuel injection without depending on an intake air pressure sensor. It also makes it possible to carry out the appropriate air-fuel ratio correction even at times when O₂ feedback control is not operating, such as the cold period, when the engine is first started, or during transient operation, by using Kbu values recorded in the Engine Control Unit (henceforth ECU).
Journal Article

Quantitative Representations of Aerodynamic Effects on Handling Response and Flat Ride of Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0445
The effects of aerodynamic coefficients on handling response and flat ride were quantified. For handling response, the aerodynamic effect was quantified by analysis with linear representation and a two-wheel simulation model, using aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a full scale car wind tunnel. The correlation of aerodynamic coefficients and handling response with driving feel was also ascertained. Aerodynamic yaw moment and side-force were also converted to equivalent front and rear lift to standardize aerodynamic indexes and improve aerodynamic development efficiency. For flat ride, steady and unsteady aerodynamic effects were quantified by analysis with a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper simulation model and aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a 35% scale model wind tunnel and towing tank test. Unsteady aerodynamic force occurrence mechanism was ascertained by unsteady CFD using dynamic mesh.
Journal Article

Establishment of Performance Design Process for Vehicle Sound-Roof Packages Based on SEA Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-0664
The process for setting the marketability targets and achievement methods for automotive interior quietness (as related to air borne noise above 400Hz, considered the high frequency range) was established. With conventional methods it is difficult to disseminate the relationship between the performance of individual parts and the overall vehicle performance. Without new methods, it is difficult to propose detailed specifications for the optimal sound proof packages. In order to make it possible to resolve the individual components performance targets, the interior cavity was divided into a number of sections and the acoustic performance of each section is evaluated separately. This is accomplished by evaluating the acoustical energy level of each separate interior panel with the unit power of the exterior speaker excitation. The applicability of the method was verified by evaluating result against predicted value, using the new method, during actual vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydraulic Servo Brake System for Cooperative Control with Regenerative Brake

2007-04-16
2007-01-0868
A new brake system, able to make efficient use of regenerative braking while maintaining excellent brake feel, has been developed to increase the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles. A hydraulic servo was used as a base to enable mechanical operation of the service brakes; solenoid valves and brake fluid pressure sensors were added to this base to make it possible to control brake line pressure as demanded. The use of a stroke simulator in the hydraulic servo prevents brake feel from being affected by the control of the brake pressure. In addition, high-accuracy brake pressure control that functions cooperatively with the regenerative brakes is enabled, resulting in stable braking effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Study on Maximizing Exergy in Automotive Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0257
The use of waste heat for automobile engine that applied Rankine cycle from the viewpoint of exergy (available energy) was researched. In order to recover heat to high quality energy, a heat-management engine whose exhaust port was replaced with an innovative evaporation device was developed. With this engine, high temperature and high pressure steam (400 degree C, 8MPa) could be generated from a large amount of the exhaust loss. In addition, high temperature water (189 degree C) was obtained from cooling loss. Consequently, the system that recovered more exergy from waste heat was established. To verify the system, the Rankine cycle system was installed in a hybrid vehicle and the automatic control system to change steam temperature and pressure according to the load variation was constructed. As the result of vehicle testing, thermal efficiency was increased from 28.9% to 32.7% (by 13.2% increase) at 100km/h constant vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Fuel Pump Module for Motorcycles

2008-09-09
2008-32-0039
A compact, low-cost fuel pump module has been developed for use in motorcycles with a small-displacement engine. Various considerations are given to make the module as compact as possible. The pump motor, which is one of the major component parts, is down-sized specifically for applications to small-displacement engines. The pressure regulator uses a simple construction consisting only of a ball and a spring without a diaphragm. Especially noteworthy is that with the volume reduced by approximately 40% from the conventional pressure regulator while using the construction that reduces self-excited vibrations caused by fuel pressure pulsations, the pressure regulator contributes significantly to the down-sizing and cost reduction of the module. Furthermore, the down-sized module remarkably reduces the size of fuel pump mount surface, allowing a modification from the flat-surface sealing to the radial sealing.
Technical Paper

Development of High-strength Piston Material with High Pressure Die Casting

2006-04-03
2006-01-0986
The technology for a new, high-strength piston material has been developed by using high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, which had a rapid rate of solidification. This method allowed the amount of Ni added to be increased to 5.5 mass%, raising the fatigue strength of the new material at temperatures of 523 K or higher by a factor of 1.5 over that of a conventional material made by gravity die casting (GDC). In addition, application of vacuum to the die cavity and using additional pressure enabled quality exceeding that of conventional GDC pistons. Pistons made from the newly developed material decreased engine friction by 4.4% and increased fuel efficiency by 2.2% in engine bench testing.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Technical Paper

Analysis on In-Cylinder Flow by Means of LDA, PIV and Numerical Simulation under Steady State Flow Condition

2008-04-14
2008-01-1063
This paper describes the evaluation of flow characteristics inside a model engine cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulation by Partial Cells in Cartesian coordinate (PCC) method. The main goal of the study is to clarify the differences in the velocity characteristics obtained by these methods. The model engine head has a four-valve system. Single- and dual- valve opening conditions of the model engine head were tested by a steady flow test rig. The flow structures were completely different for these valve opening conditions. The mean velocities and their distributions obtained by the three methods show satisfactory agreement. However, there were differences in the turbulence intensities under several conditions and measuring positions. Taylor's hypothesis in the integral length scale of turbulence was also compared with single LDA and PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Study on Impulse Charger for Enhancement of Volumetric Efficiency of SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0191
Downsizing the engine would be an effective means of improving fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions. In this case, low-speed torque generation can be enhanced through the use of impulse charging technology, a subject attracting the attention of many researchers. This paper reports the basic characteristics of impulse charging identified through research using a single-cylinder test engine, aiming for application of the technology to spark ignition (SI) engines. To ensure the maximum level of volumetric efficiency under impulse charging conditions, two requirements are controlling the timing of switching from a negative to a positive pressure wave while turning its direction at the intake chamber, and maximizing the positive pressure wave.
Technical Paper

Establishment of Engine Lubrication Oil Pressure and Flow Rate Distribution Prediction Technology Using 3D-CFD and Multi Body Dynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-1349
To develop ideal oil circuits, it was necessary to establish technology that would accurately predict lubrication oil pressure and flow rates. Therefore, the oil flow rate was predicted by applying load fluctuations, calculated using multi body dynamics, to an oil film model. In addition, the pressure loss of complex oil passages was obtained using 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, “3D-CFD”). Furthermore, the pressure loss of the oil pressure switching valves and other parts that are difficult to predict using 3D-CFD were measured as single parts, and these results were linked with one-dimensional internal flow analysis to develop a prediction method for lubrication oil pressure and flow rate distributions. Verification tests were ultimately performed using a completed engine, and the results confirmed that this simulation method accurately reproduces the oil pressure and oil flow rate in each part.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine Speed and Injection Pressure Transients on Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold Start

2002-10-21
2002-01-2745
Results are presented from an experimental study of the effects of engine speed and injection pressure transients on the cold start performance of a gasoline direct injection engine operating on iso-octane. The experiments are performed in an optically-accessible single-cylinder research engine modified for gasoline direct injection operation. In order to isolate the effects of the engine speed and injection pressure transients, three different cold start simulations are used. In the first cold start simulation the engine speed and injection pressure are constant. In the second cold start simulation the injection pressure is constant while the engine speed transient of an actual cold start is simulated. In the third cold start simulation both the engine speed and the injection pressure transients of an actual cold start are simulated.
Technical Paper

Correlation Tests Between Japanese Full-Scale Automotive Wind Tunnels Using the Correction Methods for Drag Coefficient

2005-04-11
2005-01-1457
This paper describes results of the correlation tests between several full-scale automotive wind tunnels in Japan. The tests were carried out during FY 2003 by members of the working group for wind tunnel correlation test, which was organized in JSAE Vehicle Aerodynamics Research Committee. Five wind tunnels were selected, i.e., three open test section type wind tunnels and two closed ones. Four test models were selected, i.e., sedan, station wagon, minivan and hatch back car, all of which are current production models. Tests were done with EADE test conditions. Correlation formulas for drag coefficient, which are based on the previous methods by Mercker and Wiedemann [13] and Mercker [3, 10] respectively for open and closed test section type wind tunnels, were used. Also considered were the differences of the boundary layer thickness between five wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

32 Development of Silent Chain Drive System for Motorcycles

2002-10-29
2002-32-1801
Examining the noise reduction of a motorcycle, the requirement of an effective method of reducing a drive chain noise has been a pending issue similarly to noise originating from an engine or exhaust system, etc. Through this study, it became clear that the mechanism of chain noise could be classified into two; low frequency noise originated from cordal action according to the degree of chain engagement and high frequency noise generated by impact when a chain roller hits sprocket bottom. An improvement of urethane resin damper shape, mounted on a drive side sprocket, was effective for noise reduction of the former while our development of a chain drive that combined an additional urethane resin roller with an iron roller worked well for the latter. The new chain system that combined this new idea has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half compared with a conventional system.
Technical Paper

A Study of Compatibility Test Procedure in Frontal Impact

2003-05-19
2003-06-0168
The purpose of this study is to examine compatibility test procedures proposed in the IHRA Vehicle Compatibility Working Group. Various crash tests were conducted with different vehicle weights and stiffness in our previous study, and each of the compatibility problems, namely mass; stiffness and geometric incompatibility were identified in these tests. In order to improve the compatibility, it is necessary to evaluate and control relevant vehicle characteristics of compatibility in test procedures. According to the IHRA study, relevant aspects for compatibility in frontal impact are: Good structural interaction; Frontal stiffness matching; Maintaining passenger compartment integrity; Control the deceleration time histories of impacting cars.
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