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Journal Article

Simulation of Fuel Economy Effectiveness of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Thermoelectric Generator in a Series Hybrid

2011-04-12
2011-01-1335
Simulation was employed to estimate the fuel economy enhancement from the application of an exhaust heat recovery system using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a series hybrid. The properties of the thermoelectric elements were obtained by self-assessment and set as the conditions for estimating the fuel economy. It was concluded that applying exhaust system insulation and forming the appropriate combination of elements with differing temperature properties inside the TEG could yield an enhancement of about 3% in fuel economy. An actual vehicle was also used to verify the calculation elements in the fuel economy simulation, and their reliability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Surface Pressure against Gasket in Consideration of Creep on Cylinder Head in Air-Cooled Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0104
A method was designed to predict the gasket surface pressure in consideration of creep which occurs on the surface of the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines. Creep caused by heat can cause major deformation on the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines, which may result in combustion gas leaking from between the cylinder and cylinder head. Until now, there have been no reports of methods to accurately predict phenomena relating to this deformation in the initial stage of engine design. This study combined values of strain and temperature occurring on the gasket side of the cylinder head, obtained through FEM analysis of steady heat transfer and thermal stress, with unit test results showing the domains in which the influence of the creep is critical or not. This information was used to design a method to determine whether or not an engine's specifications fell into a domain in which creep would have an effect, and predict surface pressure.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Journal Article

Development of Temperature Estimation Method of Whole Engine Considering Heat Balance under Vehicle Running Conditions

2014-11-11
2014-32-0050
For detailed temperature estimates in the engine of a running motorcycle, newly researches were conducted on the method for calculation of temperature distribution using a three-dimensional (3D) thermal conductivity simulation after calculating the total balance of heat generation and heat dissipation of the engine using a one-dimensional (1D) thermal simulation. This project is targeted at air-cooled engines in which the cooling conditions vary significantly depending on the external shapes of the engines and the airflow around them. The heat balance is calculated using the 1D thermal simulation taking into account all the routes and processes for dissipation to the atmosphere of the heat that is generated by the combustion in the engine. The 1D engine cycle simulation is applied to calculate the heat transmission to the engine from the combustion. For the calculation of heat transfer within the engine, the engine components are converted to a one-dimensional model.
Technical Paper

High Porosity Substrates for Fast-Light-Off Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1009
Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Study on Emission Reducing Method with New Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-07-23
2007-01-1933
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For diesel engines, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge.[1],[2],[3],[4]. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows the effective reduction of NOX. However, in order to realize cleaner emission gases, precise engine control in response to the state of the exhaust aftertreatment system is essential.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Technical Paper

Waza (Skilled Craftsmanship) that Created RA272 Exhaust Pipe used in Formula 1 Race in 1960's

2008-04-14
2008-01-0547
This study attempted to faithfully reproduce and scientifically analyze the process of formation of the exhaust pipe of the winning RA272 engine used in Formula One in the 1960's, using the waza (skills) employed in its fashioning, which have been handed down by its makers. This analysis showed that the manual bending method, used to create the RA272 exhaust pipe, which was filled with sand and bent while being flame-heated, without the use of figures or molds, was superior to the mechanical bending method of that time, from the standpoint of short-term period of production. We have determined that the pipe displays that the microstructure of the material remains stable, even at exhaust temperatures of 700°C to 900°C, and that useful information on the pipe's shape stability and mechanical strength has been provided.
Technical Paper

Resource-conserving, Heat-resistant Ni-based Alloy for Exhaust Valves

2009-04-20
2009-01-0259
Conventionally, the Ni-based superalloys NCF3015 (30Ni-15Cr) and the high nickel content NCF440 (70Ni-19Cr) (with its outstanding wear resistance and corrosion resistance), have been used as engine exhaust valve materials. In recent years, automobile exhaust gases have become hotter because of exhaust gas regulations and enhanced fuel consumption efficiency. Resource conservation and cost reductions also factor into global environmental challenges. To meet these requirements, NCF5015 (50Ni-15Cr), a new resource-conserving, low-cost Ni-based heat-resistant alloy with similar high-temperature strength and wear resistance as NCF440, has been developed. NCF5015's ability to simultaneously provide wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength when NCF5015 is used with diesel engines was verified and the material was then used in exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Heat-Resistant High-Nitrogen Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel for Exhaust Gasket

2004-03-08
2004-01-0890
SUS301-EH is widely used as a material for exhaust system gaskets, however, at temperatures in excess of 400°C, it can not be used as gas-seal ability of the material declines due to its reduced hardness. The following methods were found to be effective in controlling the softening of stainless steel at high temperatures: (1) The addition of a nitrogen component; (2) Stabilization of the austenite structure; (3) The addition of a molybdenum component. The addition of 0.5% nitrogen to austenitic stainless steel containing molybdenum has enabled the speed of softening at high temperatures to be significantly reduced, due to strain aging by solid nitrogen below 600°C and the combined effects of precipitation hardening and control of growth of recrystallized grains through the precipitation of fine Cr2N on the dislocations and the grain boundary above 600°C.
Technical Paper

32 Development of Silent Chain Drive System for Motorcycles

2002-10-29
2002-32-1801
Examining the noise reduction of a motorcycle, the requirement of an effective method of reducing a drive chain noise has been a pending issue similarly to noise originating from an engine or exhaust system, etc. Through this study, it became clear that the mechanism of chain noise could be classified into two; low frequency noise originated from cordal action according to the degree of chain engagement and high frequency noise generated by impact when a chain roller hits sprocket bottom. An improvement of urethane resin damper shape, mounted on a drive side sprocket, was effective for noise reduction of the former while our development of a chain drive that combined an additional urethane resin roller with an iron roller worked well for the latter. The new chain system that combined this new idea has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half compared with a conventional system.
Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

2002-10-29
2002-32-1816
Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Toughness Improvement Through Water Jacket Optimization

2003-10-27
2003-01-3259
Improvement of engine cycle thermal efficiency is an effective way to increase engine torque and to reduce fuel consumption simultaneously. However, the extent of the improvement is limited by engine knock, which is more evident at low engine speeds when combustion flame propagation is relatively slow. To prevent engine damage due to knock, the spark ignition timing of a gasoline engine is usually controlled by a knock sensor. Therefore, an engine's ignition timing cannot be set freely to achieve best engine performance and fuel economy. Whether ignition timings for a multi-cylinder engine are the same or can be set differently for each cylinder, it is not desirable for each cylinder has big deviation from the median with respect to knock tendency. It is apparent that effective measures to improve engine knock toughness should address both uniformity of all cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine and improvement of median knock toughness.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Sound Source of an Intake and Predicting the Intake Sound Pressure Level for a Motorcycle

2003-09-15
2003-32-0058
In order to accurately estimate the intake sound pressure level, it is important to improve the accuracy of the air cleaner simulation model and precisely estimate the sound source of the intake. It has been confirmed that the modeling accuracy of an air cleaner can be improved by considering the vibro-acoustic coupling. Meanwhile, the sound source of the intake depends not only on the engine specifications, but on the intake system and even the exhaust system design. In this reported example, since it is difficult to estimate the sound source of the intake only by calculation, due to the aforementioned reasons, actual measurements were carried out to define the sound source. The method is such that the sound source is modeled by acoustic impedance and volume velocity in the engine, and the acoustic impedance is measured using an impedance tube. Then, the sound pressure at the intake opening is measured.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2.0L I4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1017
It is important to take action regarding environmental issues on a global scale, and automakers are adding downsized turbocharged engines to their line-ups as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, particularly in Europe. Honda has recently announced a next-generation powertrain series that realizes a good balance between environmental performance and driving pleasure. As part of this series, the company has developed a downsized and turbocharged 2.0L gasoline direct injection engine. This is a high-powered sports car engine positioned in the European “hot hatch” category. The development balanced engine power with good environmental performance.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fatigue Strength of Motorcycle Exhaust System Considering Vibrating and Thermal Stresses

2015-11-17
2015-32-0739
A method applicable in the design stage to predict fatigue strength of a motorcycle exhaust system was developed. In this prediction method, a vibrating stress, thermal stresses, stresses resulting from the assembling of the exhaust system components and a deterioration of fatigue strength of materials originated from high temperature were simultaneously taken into account. For the prediction of the vibrating stress, flexible multibody dynamics was applied to get modeling accuracy for vibration characteristics of the entire motorcycle and the exciting force delivered from engine vibrations. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal deformation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) were applied for the prediction of thermal stresses in the exhaust system components. The temperature distribution on the surfaces of the exhaust system components is required for calculations of the thermal stresses.
Journal Article

Development of Heat Resistant Titanium Alloy for Exhaust Valves Applicable for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0023
Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
Journal Article

Development of Base Metal Catalyst and Its Compatibility Study for Motorcycle Applications

2016-11-08
2016-32-0071
We developed a copper catalyst using zero Platinum group metals (hereafter PGMs) to fit motorcycle specific emission gas environment. Though many research reports to develop catalyst without using PGMs that are precious and costly resources are available, no reports had proven Base Metal Catalyst development to meet actual emission regulation equivalent to PGM catalysts. Compared to conventional PGM catalysts, higher temperature is required to keep high catalytic conversion efficiency by utilizing properties of this Base Metal Catalyst. Thus, this Base Metal Catalyst is located in cross coupling position, though it is rare case in motorcycle. This catalyst location could cause negative impacts on engine knocking, engine performance and drivability. This time, to overcome such negative impacts we optimized whole exhaust system, including parts around catalyst.
Journal Article

Concept for Improving Cost Effectiveness of Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0233
The practical application of heat recovery using thermoelectrics requires the realization of reasonable cost effectiveness. Therefore, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) structure that can compatibly increase efficiency and reduce cost was investigated with the aim of enhancing cost effectiveness. To increase efficiency, a method of using a vacuum space structure to reduce the TEG size was investigated to enable installation just after the close-coupled catalyzer, which is subject to many space restrictions. It was found that by making it possible to use high temperature exhaust heat, power generation efficiency can be increased to approximately twice that of the typical under floor installation. In addition, coupled simulation of heat transfer and power generation using FEM, 1D cost effectiveness simulations, and bench tests were performed with the aim of reducing cost.
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