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Journal Article

Development of the Next-Generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering for Production Vehicle)

2011-04-12
2011-01-0557
Looking back on steering systems in more than a hundred years that have passed since the introduction of the automobile, it can be seen that original method of controlling cars pulled by animals such as horses was by reins, and early automobiles had a single push-pull bar (tiller steering). That became the steering wheel, and an indirect steering mechanism by rotating up and down caught on. While the steering wheel is the main type of steering system in use today, the team have developed the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system controlled mainly by bi-articular muscles, making use of advancements in science and technology and bioengineering to develop based on bioengineering considerations as shown in Fig. 1. The objective of that is to establish the ultimate steering operation system for drivers. In the first report, the authors reported on results found by using race-car prototypes as shown in Fig. 2.
Technical Paper

Study of Low-Viscosity Engine Oil on Fuel Economy and Engine Reliability

2011-04-12
2011-01-1247
An examination was made on the effect of low-viscosity engine oil on fuel efficiency improvements and engine reliability for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency through the use of select engine oils. Fuel efficiency-improving effects were estimated by measuring friction torque using low-viscosity engine oil. The results show that reducing engine oil viscosity is effective for improving fuel efficiency. In examining engine reliability, attention was paid to the following two aspects which are concerns in practical performance that may arise when engine oil viscosity is reduced. Engine oil consumption Sliding wear at high temperatures Tests and analyses were conducted to develop indexes for engine oil properties that are strongly correlated with each of these two concerns. A strong correlation was found between engine oil consumption and the results of a thermogravimetric analysis, and between high-temperature sliding wear and high-temperature, high-shear viscosity (HTHS).
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Surface Pressure against Gasket in Consideration of Creep on Cylinder Head in Air-Cooled Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0104
A method was designed to predict the gasket surface pressure in consideration of creep which occurs on the surface of the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines. Creep caused by heat can cause major deformation on the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines, which may result in combustion gas leaking from between the cylinder and cylinder head. Until now, there have been no reports of methods to accurately predict phenomena relating to this deformation in the initial stage of engine design. This study combined values of strain and temperature occurring on the gasket side of the cylinder head, obtained through FEM analysis of steady heat transfer and thermal stress, with unit test results showing the domains in which the influence of the creep is critical or not. This information was used to design a method to determine whether or not an engine's specifications fell into a domain in which creep would have an effect, and predict surface pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Powertrain for Subcompact Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1478
Honda has developed a powertrain for 2013 subcompact class EVs. This powertrain has both high power and low loss in order to provide the EV with better marketability than existing EVs, with the world-best energy efficiency and class-exceeding dynamic performance. To achieve the energy efficiency, this powertrain also has a function of cooperative control with a newly developed electrically operated servo brake system. To achieve the high dynamic performance, a new rotor shape has been introduced to the electric motor, and the power control unit (PCU) is equipped with a high thermal conductivity heat sink. The battery system allows high output power in a compact structure because of a triple parallel module group configuration and an air-cooling system. As a result of these innovations in the powertrain, the vehicle attains 82 miles of driving range while achieving world-leading energy efficiency of 29kWh/100 miles.
Technical Paper

Research on Improving Throwing Power of Electrodeposition Coating by Optimizing Paint Properties

2014-04-01
2014-01-1044
By increasing the percentage of highly dissociative strong acid components included in the neutralizing acid of the electrodeposition coating, it was possible to improve electrical conductivity and coulomb efficiency and achieve excellent throwing power. The GA cratering caused by the increase in the strong acid ratio was resolved by setting the strong acid ratio to 90% while reducing MEQ. By increasing coulomb efficiency, the quantity of hydrogen gas produced during electrodeposition was minimized, and as a result, gas pinholes remaining in the coating were reduced, increasing the smoothness of the coating beyond than that of the current materials. As a result of this study, the usage of e-coating per vehicle body was reduced by approximately 11%.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering System)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0993
With the objective of establishing the ultimate steering operation system for drivers, we developed, based on bioengineering considerations, the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system which mimicks the bi-articular muscles, as shown in Fig. 1 . The bioengineering advantages are as follows: (1) force can be exerted more easily, (2) the steering can be accomplished quickly, (3) the positioning can be done accurately, and (4) the burden on the driver can be reduced (less fatigue). The advantages of the vehicle in terms of its motion are as follows: (1) the line-traceability is improved, (2) the drift control is improved, (3) the lane-change capability is improved, and (4) the lap time and stability are improved. We would like to report on these advantages of the TLS system from a bioengineering standpoint, and also describe the results of some verification test results obtained from vehicles equipped with this new steering system.
Technical Paper

Verification of Influences of Biodiesel Fuel on Automotive Fuel-line Rubber and Plastic Materials

2010-04-12
2010-01-0915
At present, biodiesel fuels using natural-origin materials are expanding in share, and there are many different kinds. Biodiesel fuel generates organic acid when it deteriorates, so care is needed when evaluating the influence of the fuel on automotive fuel-line materials. A model biodiesel fuel was designed taking into account deterioration of the fuel and mixing of impurities into it. Durability of automotive fuel-line rubber and plastic materials were evaluated by using the model fuel. From the evaluation results, it was found that fluoroelastomer (hereafter referred to as FKM) and polyacetal resin (hereafter referred to as POM) deteriorate depending on specific fuel properties and deterioration state. In this paper, we report evaluating results of biodiesel fuels on the automotive fuel-line rubber and plastic materials, and the importance of biodiesel fuel property management.
Technical Paper

Development of Evaluation Method for Low-Cycle Fatigue Breakdown on HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

2010-04-12
2010-01-0695
With a growing demand for high-power diesel engines, a key issue in engine development is to create efficient methods for developing highly durable cylinder heads, without having to repeat trial-and-error testing. Especially, it was difficult to accurately predict the occurrence and origin of cracks on the surfaces of cylinder heads in hot and cold cycle engine operation. This paper describes a thermal fatigue evaluation method developed by analyzing areas around the glow plug hole where cracks often occur during hot and cold cycle engine operation. To reveal the conditions of edges from which cracks were formed under engine durability tests, we used two procedures. One was estimating local temperature of edge areas based on material hardness determination, in order to compensate for the accuracy of the thermal analysis. The other was analyzing the strain amplitudes on the cylinder head surface using computer simulation.
Technical Paper

Introduction of a New Method of Solving Wear Problems Caused by the Swing Motion Occurring between the Roller and the Sliding Contact Surface

2010-04-12
2010-01-1055
In an attempt to decrease the amount of CO2 emitted by engines and yet improve engine output power, various approaches to the development of variable valve-lift mechanisms and the application of direct fuel injection and supercharger mechanisms are rapidly gaining popularity. In the case of the swing motion which takes place in variable valve-lift mechanisms, the relative speed between the two components reaches zero at the location where the load is high and the oil film tends to break, thereby leading to wear. Furthermore, the use of a supercharger and a direct injection device generates soot, which promotes further wear. Therefore establishing a reliable method for estimating wear has become a pressing issue. Wear problems caused by the swing motion occur during boundary lubrication, and we have devised a solution for them.
Technical Paper

Development of Torque Sensor with Nickel-Iron Alloy Plating for Pedal-Equipped Electric Vehicles

2013-10-15
2013-32-9045
This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
Journal Article

Development of Temperature Estimation Method of Whole Engine Considering Heat Balance under Vehicle Running Conditions

2014-11-11
2014-32-0050
For detailed temperature estimates in the engine of a running motorcycle, newly researches were conducted on the method for calculation of temperature distribution using a three-dimensional (3D) thermal conductivity simulation after calculating the total balance of heat generation and heat dissipation of the engine using a one-dimensional (1D) thermal simulation. This project is targeted at air-cooled engines in which the cooling conditions vary significantly depending on the external shapes of the engines and the airflow around them. The heat balance is calculated using the 1D thermal simulation taking into account all the routes and processes for dissipation to the atmosphere of the heat that is generated by the combustion in the engine. The 1D engine cycle simulation is applied to calculate the heat transmission to the engine from the combustion. For the calculation of heat transfer within the engine, the engine components are converted to a one-dimensional model.
Journal Article

Wear Properties of Car Engine Shaft in Actual Engine Environment

2015-04-14
2015-01-0686
When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
Journal Article

Fracture Prediction for Automotive Bodies Using a Ductile Fracture Criterion and a Strain-Dependent Anisotropy Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0567
In order to reduce automobile body weight and improve crashworthiness, the use of high-strength steels has increased greatly in recent years. An optimal combination of both crash safety performance and lightweight structure has been a major challenge in automobile body engineering. In this study, the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion was applied to predict the fracture of high-strength steels. Marciniak-type biaxial stretching tests for high-strength steels were performed to measure the material constant of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Furthermore, in order to improve the simulation accuracy, local anisotropic parameters based on the plastic strain (strain dependent model of anisotropy) were measured using the digital image grid method and were incorporated into Hill's anisotropic yield condition by the authors. In order to confirm the validity of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion, uniaxial tensile tests were performed.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Heat Treatment on Corrosion-Related Failure of the Suspension Spring

2015-04-14
2015-01-0518
In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
Journal Article

Development of γ′-Fe4N Phase Control Technology and Low-Carbon Alloy Steel for High-Strength Nitrided Gear

2015-04-14
2015-01-0519
A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
Technical Paper

Technology to Enhance Deep-Drawability by Strain Dispersion Using Stress Relaxation Phenomenon

2015-04-14
2015-01-0531
When the strain is temporarily stopped during tensile testing of a metal, a stress relaxation phenomenon is known to occur whereby the stress diminishes with the passage of time. This phenomenon has been explained as the change of elastic strain into plastic strain. A technique was devised for deliberately causing strain dispersion to occur by applying the stress relaxation phenomenon during stamping. A new step motion that pause the die during forming was devised; it succeeded in modifying the deep-draw forming limit by a maximum of 40%. This new technique was verified through tensile and actual stamping tests. It was confirmed that the use of step motion causes the strain to disperse, thereby modifying the deep draw forming limit. The degree to which the forming limit is modified is dependent on the stop time and the temperature. Step motion technology increases the stampability of high-strength, forming-resistant materials and allows for expanded application of these materials.
Journal Article

New Theoretical Approach for Weight Reduction on Cylinder Head

2015-04-14
2015-01-0495
Designing a lightweight and durable engine is universally important from the standpoints of fuel economy, vehicle dynamics and cost. However, it is challenging to theoretically find an optimal solution which meets both requirements in products such as the cylinder head, to which various thermal loads and mechanical loads are simultaneously applied. In our research, we focused on “non-parametric optimization” and attempted to establish a new design approach derived from the weight reduction of a cylinder head. Our optimization process consists of topology optimization and shape optimization. In the topology optimization process, we explored an optimal structure with the theoretically-highest stiffness in the given design space. This is to provide an efficient structure for pursuing both lightweight and durable characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process.
Technical Paper

Study of Durability Prediction with Focus on Wear Properties for Multiple Plate Clutches

2007-04-16
2007-01-0240
To increase the durability of multiple-plate clutches used in automatic transmissions, attention was focused on the wear history of the facing material. Measurements have confirmed that correlations can be observed between initial wear and disk contact pressure when the clutch is engaged, and between steady wear and plate temperature. Next, simulation technology was developed to quantify the disk contact pressure and plate temperature. When simulated contact pressure distribution and temperature distribution were used to establish correlations with durability wear, good proportional relationships were found in both cases. It was also found that when clutch specifications and driving conditions were varied, the gradient of the correction also varied, but the correlation remained proportional as long as the same facing material was used. The gradient was ranked as a wear property specific to the facing material.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model for a Pedestrian Pelvis and Lower Limb

2006-04-03
2006-01-0683
A finite element (FE) model that can predict impact response and injuries to a human pelvis and lower limb was developed in PAM-CRASH™ by accurately representing human anatomical structures. In our previous study, three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the thigh, leg and knee joint was developed based on MRI scans from a human volunteer. 3D geometry of a bony pelvis created in this study was based on CT scans from a Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). The model was validated using published quasi-static and dynamic test results with human pelves and lower limbs. The thigh and leg models were validated against recently published dynamic 3-point bending test results with off-center loading. The validation results showed that this model can reproduce force-deflection and moment-deflection responses of a human thigh and leg in various loading conditions along with average force and moment at fracture.
Journal Article

Development of High Fatigue Strength for Powder-Forged Connecting Rods

2008-04-14
2008-01-0849
Technology has been developed to increase the fatigue strength of powder-forged connecting rods. The fatigue strength of powder-forged materials was increased without adding special alloy components or lowering workability by adjusting the ratios of the conventional main mixed powders (iron, carbon, copper). In addition to solid solution strengthening of the ferrite using copper, reducing porosity, which is a material surface defect, is also an effective method of increasing fatigue strength. Reducing carbon content greatly reduced the occurrence of defects in the forging stage. The results of this research showed that the fatigue strength of high strength powder-forged connecting rods can be increased by 30% or more over that of conventional materials, allowing powder-forged connecting rods to be applied to even higher output and higher load engines than before.
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