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Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Surface Pressure against Gasket in Consideration of Creep on Cylinder Head in Air-Cooled Engines

A method was designed to predict the gasket surface pressure in consideration of creep which occurs on the surface of the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines. Creep caused by heat can cause major deformation on the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines, which may result in combustion gas leaking from between the cylinder and cylinder head. Until now, there have been no reports of methods to accurately predict phenomena relating to this deformation in the initial stage of engine design. This study combined values of strain and temperature occurring on the gasket side of the cylinder head, obtained through FEM analysis of steady heat transfer and thermal stress, with unit test results showing the domains in which the influence of the creep is critical or not. This information was used to design a method to determine whether or not an engine's specifications fell into a domain in which creep would have an effect, and predict surface pressure.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Power Performance Prediction in Outboard Motors for High-Speed Planing Boats using CFD Simulation

Predicting fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor for a high speed small planing boat are numerically challenging. The propeller is one of the most popular propulsion systems used for outboard motors. We focused our attention on the fact that the thrust performance of a propeller has a major impact on cruising fuel consumption and performance. We believe that we can numerically predict cruising fuel consumption, which has conventionally been estimated through experiential means, using accurate thrust performance measurements via CFD simulation without cavitations model. This study aims to develop a simulator that could quantitatively predict cruising fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor used for a high speed small planing boat. After comparing the CFD simulation of propellers against the results of model tests, the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Journal Article

Application of Electric Servo Brake System to Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

An electric servo brake system applied for use on electric vehicles was applied for use on plug-in hybrid vehicles in order to achieve fuel-savings together with good brake feel and enhanced operability for plug-in hybrid vehicles. The electric servo brake system is made up of highly accurate braking pressure control that functions cooperatively with regenerative brakes together with a structure in which pedal force is not influenced by braking pressure control. The configuration of these components enabled good braking feel even when the power train was being switched from one drive mode to another. Automated pressurization functions that are intended for plug-in hybrid vehicles and that operate with electric servo brake systems were also developed. These developed functions include stall cooperative control that functions cooperatively with the power train, regenerative coordinate adaptive cruise control, and hill-start assist.
Technical Paper

Investigation about Predictive Accuracy of Empirical Engine Models using Design of Experiments

This study focuses on improvement of the predictive accuracy of empirical engine models using the Model Base Calibration (MBC) method. This research discusses the effects of the number of measurement points on the accuracy of models for different Design of Experiments (DoE) by using a direct-injection 4-cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the predictive accuracy of the models converges on fixed values when the number of measurement points is increased in Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) and D-Optimal Design. This is because the probability density distribution of the measurement data has little variation as the number of measurement points increases. Comparing LHS and D-Optimal indicates that D-Optimal displays a higher level of accuracy, it is able to extend the boundary model because of its greater number of measurement points at the boundaries of the boundary model.
Journal Article

In-cylinder Optical Investigation of Combustion Behavior on a Fast Injection Rate Diesel Common Rail Injector

The field of diesel combustion research is producing numerous reports on studies of premixed combustion, which promises simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot, in order to meet increasingly stringent regulations on harmful emissions from automobiles. However, although premixed combustion can simultaneously reduce both NOx and soot, certain issues have been pointed out, including the fact that it emits greater quantities of unburned HC and CO gases and the fact that it limits the operating range. Furthermore, this combustion method sets the ignition delay longer with the aim of promoting the mixing of fuel and air. This raises issues with the product due to the combustion instability and sensitivity to the uneven fuel properties that are found on the market, the capability of the engine response under transient conditions, the deterioration in combustion noise, and so on.
Journal Article

Development of Temperature Estimation Method of Whole Engine Considering Heat Balance under Vehicle Running Conditions

For detailed temperature estimates in the engine of a running motorcycle, newly researches were conducted on the method for calculation of temperature distribution using a three-dimensional (3D) thermal conductivity simulation after calculating the total balance of heat generation and heat dissipation of the engine using a one-dimensional (1D) thermal simulation. This project is targeted at air-cooled engines in which the cooling conditions vary significantly depending on the external shapes of the engines and the airflow around them. The heat balance is calculated using the 1D thermal simulation taking into account all the routes and processes for dissipation to the atmosphere of the heat that is generated by the combustion in the engine. The 1D engine cycle simulation is applied to calculate the heat transmission to the engine from the combustion. For the calculation of heat transfer within the engine, the engine components are converted to a one-dimensional model.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System of Air-cooled Engines for Small Displacement Motorcycles

With the interest in global environmental issues growing in recent years, the demand for the reduction of exhaust gas emission and improvement in fuel consumption for small motorcycles has increased greatly. Recently, small motorcycles have been marketed equipped with an electronically controlled fuel injection system effective in reducing emissions and enhancing fuel consumption by accurately controlling the air-fuel ratio. The small motorcycles' market comprises mainly ASEAN countries, and the majority of the motorcycles consist of reasonably priced models with air-cooled engines. Fuel injection systems have already been adopted for motorcycles equipped with water-cooled engines in the markets of advanced countries, mostly in EU. Given the above situation, two issues must be addressed to adopt a successful fuel injection system for air-cooled, low-priced small motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Development of Electronically Controlled Belt-type CVT for Motorcycles

An electronically controlled belt-type CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) has been developed for scooter type two-wheeled vehicles. Related to two-wheeled vehicles, the electronically controlled belt-type CVT has advantages over the conventional belt-type CVT, such as more compact and lighter weight. This was achieved by developing a new rubber belt-type. The new rubber belt-type CVT uses a rubber belt with high friction coefficient and pulleys made of aluminum. To obtain good shifting characteristics, the desired speed ratio related to throttle opening and drive speed is calculated. When moving, the actual speed ratio automatically adjusts to the desired value. For the shift modes, three shift modes, two automatic modes and one manual mode with six-speeds were prepared. The electronically controlled CVT increased the range of usable engine speeds compared to the conventional belt-type CVT. Therefore good drivability is maintained.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Practical Application of Combustion Simulation using CFD for Small Engine of Two-Wheeled Vehicle

The combustion simulation based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) was attempted in order to visualize in-cylinder combustion phenomena of a small displacement, high speed four-stroke SI engine for motorcycle applications. To verify the results of the simulation, the steady state flow in a cylinder, the fuel spray behavior and the flame propagation behavior in an actual engine were measured and compared. The results were that an adequate correlation was confirmed in each phenomenon, proving that the CFD was applicable as a means of visualization. As the result of the investigation of the combustion system applying this technique, improvements such as the specific fuel consumption and the extension of the lean combustion zone were attained, assuring effectiveness of this technique for actual engine development. This technique has been applied to the development of the world's first four-stroke 50cm3 PGM-FI (Programmed Fuel Injection) engine.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Toughness Improvement Through Water Jacket Optimization

Improvement of engine cycle thermal efficiency is an effective way to increase engine torque and to reduce fuel consumption simultaneously. However, the extent of the improvement is limited by engine knock, which is more evident at low engine speeds when combustion flame propagation is relatively slow. To prevent engine damage due to knock, the spark ignition timing of a gasoline engine is usually controlled by a knock sensor. Therefore, an engine's ignition timing cannot be set freely to achieve best engine performance and fuel economy. Whether ignition timings for a multi-cylinder engine are the same or can be set differently for each cylinder, it is not desirable for each cylinder has big deviation from the median with respect to knock tendency. It is apparent that effective measures to improve engine knock toughness should address both uniformity of all cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine and improvement of median knock toughness.
Technical Paper

Study on Engine Management System Using In-cylinder Pressure Sensor Integrated with Spark Plug

There has been strong public demand for reduced hazardous exhaust gas emissions and improved fuel economy for automobile engines. In recent years, a number of innovative solutions that lead to a reduction in fuel consumption rate have been developed, including in-cylinder direct injection and lean burn combustion technologies, as well as an engine utilizing a large volume of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Furthermore, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is under development for actual application. However, one of the issues common to these technologies is less stable combustion, which causes difficulty in engine management. Additionally, it is now mandatory to provide an onboard diagnosis (OBD) system. This requires manufacturers to develop a technology that allows onboard monitoring and control of the combustion state. This paper reports on an innovative combustion diagnostic method using an in-cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emissions -The Example of Honda Insight

In order to reduce CO2 emissions from automobiles, a highly fuel-efficient hybrid vehicle, the “Insight”, has been developed at Honda. Life cycle CO2 emissions are compared for the aluminum-bodied Insight, a simulated steel-bodied Insight, and a conventional gasoline vehicle. Life cycle CO2 emission is still dominated by the in-use fuel consumption. However, the contribution of CO2 emission from material use and processing could increase when the vehicle fuel consumption is greatly reduced. The use of recycled aluminum reduces CO2 emission from the aluminum-bodied Insight.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fatigue Strength of Motorcycle Exhaust System Considering Vibrating and Thermal Stresses

A method applicable in the design stage to predict fatigue strength of a motorcycle exhaust system was developed. In this prediction method, a vibrating stress, thermal stresses, stresses resulting from the assembling of the exhaust system components and a deterioration of fatigue strength of materials originated from high temperature were simultaneously taken into account. For the prediction of the vibrating stress, flexible multibody dynamics was applied to get modeling accuracy for vibration characteristics of the entire motorcycle and the exciting force delivered from engine vibrations. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal deformation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) were applied for the prediction of thermal stresses in the exhaust system components. The temperature distribution on the surfaces of the exhaust system components is required for calculations of the thermal stresses.
Journal Article

Establishment of Fuel Economy Estimation Method Focused on Transmission Efficiency of Rubber Belt Type CVT

A simulation tool has been developed that can be used to estimate a fuel economy while driving in a mode test of a motorcycle equipped with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) at an early stage of development. For a precise estimation of a mode fuel economy, it is necessary to accurately estimate the CVT ratio, the engine speed, and the crankshaft torque during driving in a mode. To achieve this, this study has generalized the transmission efficiency of a CVT system. This study has also derived developed balance equations that can take into account the transmission efficiency of CVT and the slippage that occurs when the centrifugal clutch is about to be engaged. In the proposed method, the pulley ratio of CVT, the engine speed, and the torque at the crankshaft were obtained first by solving the developed balance equations at discrete times during driving in a mode.
Journal Article

Concept for Improving Cost Effectiveness of Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems

The practical application of heat recovery using thermoelectrics requires the realization of reasonable cost effectiveness. Therefore, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) structure that can compatibly increase efficiency and reduce cost was investigated with the aim of enhancing cost effectiveness. To increase efficiency, a method of using a vacuum space structure to reduce the TEG size was investigated to enable installation just after the close-coupled catalyzer, which is subject to many space restrictions. It was found that by making it possible to use high temperature exhaust heat, power generation efficiency can be increased to approximately twice that of the typical under floor installation. In addition, coupled simulation of heat transfer and power generation using FEM, 1D cost effectiveness simulations, and bench tests were performed with the aim of reducing cost.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight and Compact 1kVA-Class Portable Generator

The development of the lightweight and compact EU1000i generator with a maximum output of 1kVA is presented. The technology applied to achieve the required levels of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and noise, and to provide a stable electrical power supply with low waveform distortion is described. The technology comprises of four elements: a high-speed, multi-pole, external rotor type alternator, a microcomputer-controlled sine wave inverter, a compact high-speed 4-stroke engine with electronic speed governing, and a lightweight frame with a two-level noise-damping system. Combination of these four elements of technology has achieved 50% less weight, 25-30% lower fuel consumption, and 7-9dB(A) less noise than the previous model. The emission levels of CO and of NOx + HC are also 30% and 65% lower than the 2000 CARB regulations.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Equipped with Non-Throttling S.I. Engine with Early Intake Valve Closing Mechanism

To enable non-throttling operation of gasoline S.I. engine, we have manufactured engines equipped with a newly developed Hydraulic Variable-valve Train (HVT), which can vary its intake-valve closing-timing freely. The air-intake control ability of HVT engine is equivalent to conventional throttling engines. Combustion becomes unstable, however, under non-throttling operation at idling. For the countermeasure, newly designed combustion chamber has been developed. The reduction of pumping loss by the HVT depends on engine speed rather than load, and amounts to about 80 % maximum. A conventional engine-management system is not applicable for non-throttling operation. Therefore, new management system has been developed for load control.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy in a Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine for a Small Motorcycle

For the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption of a motorcycle with a small-displacement, four-stroke spark-ignition engine, a compact combustion chamber was tried and the weight of the moving parts of the engine was reduced. As a result, the gas mileage under 30 km/h cruising condition was increased to 110 km/l with an improvement of 50% over a conventional motorcycle.