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Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welds with E-coat

1997-02-24
971008
Gas shielded metal arc welding is generally applied to automobile chassis parts. However, the weld parts with the E-coat show poor corrosion resistance. Therefore, the corrosion mechanism of the weld parts was investigated. The results found two reasons why the weld parts corroded faster than the non weld parts:(1)inadequate phosphating (2)defects in the E-coat. After detailed investigation, it was clarified that the major cause of poor corrosion resistance was the defects in the E-coat caused by slags formed on the surface of the weld bead. Therefore the amount of slag has to be decreased to improve the corrosion resistance. The effect of shielding gas composition on the amount of slag was then investigated. In the case of Ar and oxidizing gas mixture, the corrosion resistance improved as the oxidizing gas content decreased. This was due to the reduction of slags.
Technical Paper

Development of Extruded Electrically Heated Catalyst System for ULEV Standards

1997-02-24
971031
Into the early-part of the next century, automotive emission standards are becoming stricter around the world. The electrically-heated catalyst (EHC) is well known as an effective technology for the reduction of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions without a significant increase in back pressure. Our extruded, alternator powered EHC (APEHC) manufactured with a unique canning method and equipped with a reliable, water proof electrode has demonstrated excellent durability and reliability, as stated in our previous SAE paper (#960340). The APEHC system discussed in this paper has achieved the Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards, after 100,000 miles of fleet testing, without any failure. This is the final milestone in addressing the EHC as a realistic-production technology for ULEV. With the ability to meet ULEV/Stage III emission targets without a significant increase in back pressure, the EHC will be applied to an especially high performance vehicle with a large displacement engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Aluminum for Automobile Chassis Parts

1991-02-01
910554
Several processes, such as casting, forging, and pressing, were used in the manufacturing of the Honda NSX's aluminum chassis. For casting, a high grade method which utilizes program control of mold temperature was developed and put into practical use. For optimum forging, a selection of cold and hot processes were investigated and a process to save energy during processing was pursued. As a result, an overall weight reduction of approximately 50% was achieved.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Fuel Pump Module for Motorcycles

2008-09-09
2008-32-0039
A compact, low-cost fuel pump module has been developed for use in motorcycles with a small-displacement engine. Various considerations are given to make the module as compact as possible. The pump motor, which is one of the major component parts, is down-sized specifically for applications to small-displacement engines. The pressure regulator uses a simple construction consisting only of a ball and a spring without a diaphragm. Especially noteworthy is that with the volume reduced by approximately 40% from the conventional pressure regulator while using the construction that reduces self-excited vibrations caused by fuel pressure pulsations, the pressure regulator contributes significantly to the down-sizing and cost reduction of the module. Furthermore, the down-sized module remarkably reduces the size of fuel pump mount surface, allowing a modification from the flat-surface sealing to the radial sealing.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small-Sized Multilayer Fuel Tank for Motorcycles and ATVs Complying with EPA Gasoline Permeation Controls

2008-09-09
2008-32-0041
As a result of recent EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) gasoline permeation control regulations, the fuel tanks on motorcycles and ATVs (All-Terrain Vehicles) are required to change to lower gasoline permeation performance on 2008 models. Therefore, we determined to use a multilayer plastic fuel tank. There are some molding issues that are peculiar to motorcycle and ATV fuel tanks. First, when the insert is blow molded, there is a reduction in welding strength. Second, peeling of the adhesion occurs on impact in the inserted parts. Third, saddle shapes with large ductility deformation are easy to be punctured during molding. Finally, the appearance of the fuel tank is not acceptable. In order to address the first issue, the welding performance, the drawdown of parison and the melting damage of insert parts were balanced, focusing attention to the temperatures of the parison and the insert.
Technical Paper

Development of Compound Coating that Reduces Permeation of Chloride Ion in Salty Water for Hexavalent-Chromium-Free Metal Gasket for PWC Engines

2008-09-09
2008-32-0047
A hexavalent-chromium-free metal gasket for PWC engines was developed to correspond to the ELV (End of Life Vehicle) directive. In order to enhance the adhesive property, the ion capture to trap the chloride ion, an anti-rust pigment to reform the chemical coating, and an inorganic sealer to stop the passage of chloride ion were added to the adhesive and rubber raw material. A good adhesive property and rubber physical property was obtained through the addition of an anticorrosive pigment. The rubber vulcanization condition in the manufacturing process was reviewed. As a result, without modifying the current compound coating line for mass-production, a gasket with a blistering resistance more than hexavalent chromium conversion coating equivalence and coating adhesion was developed when using salt water for engine cooling.
Technical Paper

Application of Load Path Index U* for Evaluation of Sheet Steel Joint with Spot Welds

2012-04-16
2012-01-0534
An attempt was made to apply the index U* in detail analysis of load paths in structural joints under static load, using as examples coupling structures of two joined frames with hat-shaped sections, and T-beam joint structures each including spot welds, both of which are widely used in automotive body structures. U* is a load path analysis index that expresses the strength of connection between load points and arbitrary points on a structure. It was possible to identify areas making up load paths by means of the magnitude of U* values, and to clarify the areas that should be coupled in order to achieve effective load transfer to contiguous members. In addition, because it is possible to determine whether or not each section of a structure possesses the potential for load transfer using U* analysis, the research also demonstrated that U* could be used as an indicator of joint structures providing efficient load transfer.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metal Composite Material Suitable for Extrusion Process used for Cylinder Sleeves of Internal Combustion Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1002
There are a couple of ways to manufacture aluminum cylinder blocks that have a good balance between productivity and abrasion resistance. One of them is the insert-molding of a sleeve made of PMC (Powder Metal Composite) by the HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting) method. However, in this method, cracks are apt to occur on the surface when the PMC sleeve is extruded and that has been a restriction factor against higher extrusion speed. The authors attempted to raise this extrusion temperature by eliminating the Cu additive process from the aluminum alloy powder in order to raise its melting point by approximately 50 °C. This enabled the wall of the extruded sleeve to be thinner and the extrusion speed to be higher compared to those of a conventional production method while avoiding the occurrence of surface cracks.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Sensitivity Function based A/F F/B Controller by Sensor Response Characteristics

2015-04-14
2015-01-1631
Recently, automotive emission regulations are being further tightened, such as the Tier III/LEV III in the U.S. As a result, reducing cost of after-treatment systems to meet these strict regulations has become an urgent issue, and then the demand for high-precision air-fuel ratio (A/F) control which can achieve this cost reduction is high [1]. On the other hand, in order to meet rapidly changing market needs, it is becoming difficult to keep enough development periods that enable sufficient calibration by trial-and-error, such as feedback-gain calibration. This leads to an increase in three-way catalytic converter costs in some cases. For these reasons, it is necessary to construct control system that can make full use of hardware capabilities, can shorten development periods regardless of the skill level of engineers.
Technical Paper

Technology to Enhance Deep-Drawability by Strain Dispersion Using Stress Relaxation Phenomenon

2015-04-14
2015-01-0531
When the strain is temporarily stopped during tensile testing of a metal, a stress relaxation phenomenon is known to occur whereby the stress diminishes with the passage of time. This phenomenon has been explained as the change of elastic strain into plastic strain. A technique was devised for deliberately causing strain dispersion to occur by applying the stress relaxation phenomenon during stamping. A new step motion that pause the die during forming was devised; it succeeded in modifying the deep-draw forming limit by a maximum of 40%. This new technique was verified through tensile and actual stamping tests. It was confirmed that the use of step motion causes the strain to disperse, thereby modifying the deep draw forming limit. The degree to which the forming limit is modified is dependent on the stop time and the temperature. Step motion technology increases the stampability of high-strength, forming-resistant materials and allows for expanded application of these materials.
Technical Paper

Transmission-Mounted Power Control Unit with High Power Density for Two-Motor Hybrid System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1223
A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminium Hollow Subframe Using High-Pressure Die Casting

2016-04-05
2016-01-0406
High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Die-Cast Parts for Welded Structure Manufactured by the Transition Flow Filling

1999-09-28
1999-01-3297
In general, welding of high-pressure die casting (DC) parts has been difficult due to gases trapped in the castings. This is a result of the high-speed turbulent flow condition of the DC process. These gases are liberated during welding and produce porosity in the weld joint. The Author had found the range where an enough welding quality was obtained without great drop in castability to the middle of the laminar flow and turbulent flow. This range has been defined as the transition zone. Moreover high strength Al-Mg-Ni alloy was developed by non-heat-treatment. The Transition Flow Filling Method(TFFM) has been developed, that can not only reduce the amount of trapped gases but also is applicable to standard high pressure die casting equipment. With this method, high quality DC parts can be produced that are weldable, strong and have high toughness.
Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

2002-10-29
2002-32-1816
Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

2002-10-29
2002-32-1818
Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

2018-10-30
2018-32-0052
In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Journal Article

Study of Effects of Residual Stress on Natural Frequency of Motorcycle Brake Discs

2014-11-11
2014-32-0053
In brake squeal analyses using FE models, minimizing the discrepancies in vibration characteristics between the measurement and the simulation is a key issue for improving its reproducibility. The discrepancies are generally adjusted by the shape parameters and/or material properties applied to the model. However, the discrepancy cannot be easily adjusted, especially, for the vibration characteristic of the disc model of a motorcycle. One of the factors that give a large impact on this discrepancy is a thermal history of the disc. That thermal history includes the one experienced in manufacturing process. In this paper, we examine the effects of residual stress on the natural frequency of motorcycle discs. The residual stress on the disc surface was measured by X-ray stress measurement method. It was followed by an eigenvalue analysis. In this analysis, we developed a unique method in which the residual stress was substituted by thermal stress.
Journal Article

The Thermal and Aerodynamic Development of a Cooling and Heat Resistance Package for a New Hybrid Sports Car

2015-04-14
2015-01-1526
A sports car exhibits many challenges from an aerodynamic point of view: drag that limits top speed, lift - or down force - and balance that affects handling, brake cooling and insuring that the heat exchangers have enough air flowing through them under several vehicle speeds and ambient conditions. All of which must be balanced with a sports car styling and esthetic. Since this sports car applies two electric motors to drive front axle and a high-rev V6 turbo charged engine in series with a 9-speed double-clutch transmission and one electric motor to drive rear axle, additional cooling was required, yielding a total of ten air cooled-heat exchangers. It is also a challenge to introduce cooling air into the rear engine room to protect the car under severe thermal conditions. This paper focuses on the cooling and heat resistance concept.
Journal Article

Fretting Analysis of an Engine Bearing Cap Using Computer Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1083
The independent bearing cap is a cylinder block bearing structure that has high mass reduction effects. In general, this structure has low fastening stiffness compared to the rudder block structure. Furthermore, when using combination of different materials small sliding occurs at the mating surface, and fretting fatigue sometimes occurs at lower area than the material strength limit. Fretting fatigue was previously predicted using CAE, but there were issues with establishing a correlation with the actual engine under complex conditions, and the judgment criteria were not clear, so accurate prediction was a challenge. This paper reports on a new CAE-based prediction method to predict the fretting damage occurring on the bearing cap mating surface in an aluminum material cylinder block. First of all, condition a fretting fatigue test was performed with test pieces, and identification of CAE was performed for the strain and sliding amount.
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