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Technical Paper

Conceptual Simulation for Plug-In HEV at Early Stage of Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0980
This study aims to build a conceptual simulation used at the early stage of PHEV development. This simulation enables to design vehicle concept and fundamental architecture with regard to fuel economy, vehicle acceleration and electric range. The model based on forward-looking method comprises of plant-model and controller-model which are made by one-dimensional simulation tool “GT-SUITE” and Matlab/SIMULINK respectively. In order to automatically couple between them and to implement iterative calculations of SOC (State-of-Charge) convergence, optimization and automation tool “modeFRONTIER” was used. As a case study of this simulation, we adopted series-parallel type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and demonstrated the results on fuel economy of a legislative driving cycle and 0-60mph vehicle acceleration. Moreover, procedures to identify component specifications meeting vehicle targets and requirements at the early stage of vehicle development were concretely described.
Technical Paper

New Proposal of Piston Skirt Form using Multi Objective Optimization Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1079
A multi-objective optimization model using a piston behavior simulation for the prediction of NV, friction and scuffing was created. This model was used to optimize the piston skirt form, helping to enable well-balanced forms to be sought. Optimization calculations, involving extended analyses and numerous design variables, conventionally necessitate long calculation times in order to achieve adequate outcomes. Because of this, in the present project data was converted into functions in order to help enable the complex piston skirt form to be expressed using a small amount of coefficients. Using the limit values for manufacturability and the degree of contribution to the target functions, the scope of design variables was restricted, and the time necessary for the analysis was significantly reduced. This has helped to enable optimal solutions to be determined within a practical time frame.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Semi-Floating Piston Pin Boss Formed by Using Oil-Film Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0908
This paper describes the oil-film bearing analysis simulation was utilized for the optimization of pin boss form which reduces a piston-pin noise. It is clear from the mechanism analysis of the piston-pin noise which is the last research that an oil-film flow inside a pin boss is an important factor for pin noise reduction. So, in this research, the oil-film simulation of the piston-pin-boss bearing part was performed using oil-film bearing analysis tool. After setting up the simulation conditions of the oil-film bearing part so that actual pin behavior and high correlativity might be shown, a parameter, effective hydrodynamic angular velocity, and an oil flow rate of change suitable for evaluation of a pin noise were found out. The pin noise in semi floating piston was reduced to the same level as full floating type by applying pin boss form to which each evaluation parameter becomes the optimal to a piston.
Technical Paper

New Technique for Optimizing Member Cross-Sections in Car Bodies to Reduce Noise and Weight

2012-04-16
2012-01-0772
Currently, car bodies require further weight reduction in order to support increasing fuel economy requirements. An efficient way for light weight body design is to include body member size as a design variable in addition to part thickness. However it is currently difficult for finite element (FE) models to change member size even using current morphing techniques. To break through this challenge, a hybrid modeling approach was developed which combines shell and beam element representations of body structural members. The original member shell element thickness was decreased by 40%. Then the stiffness reduction caused by this change is offset by beam elements incorporated inside these members. These beams can represent the stiffness change due to new cross sectional dimensions or orientations without changing the original shell elements, thus avoiding modeling instabilities that can occur from morphing.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the New Honda FIT/JAZZ

2015-04-14
2015-01-1535
This paper discusses the characteristic flow field of the new Honda FIT/Jazz as determined from the aerodynamic development process, and introduces the technique that reduced aerodynamic drag in a full model change. The new FIT was the first model to take full advantage of the Flow Analysis Simulation tool (FAST), our in-house CFD system, in its development. The FAST system performs aerodynamic simulation by automatically linking the exterior surface design with a predefined platform layout. This allows engineers to run calculations efficiently, and the results can be shared among vehicle stylists and aerodynamicists. Optimization of the exterior design gives the new FIT a moderate pressure peak at the front bumper corner as compared to the previous model, resulting in a smaller pressure difference between the side and underbody.
Technical Paper

Development of Torque Sensor with Nickel-Iron Alloy Plating for Pedal-Equipped Electric Vehicles

2013-10-15
2013-32-9045
This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

The Application of the Statistical Design Support System Toward Optimization of Vehicle Safety Equipmen

1999-09-28
1999-01-3209
The “Statistical Design Support System” produces a new practical optimal design method. It can be used even on nonlinear behavior. The optimization can be carried out with this system using a small number of calculation results. The authors applied it to the design optimization of the occupant restraint system in order to reduce the injury criteria based on the crash simulation. In line with growing interest and improvements in technology on vehicle safety, it will be necessary to consider some different crash situations simultaneously. The authors made an optimal design taking into account the different collision conditions. This paper describes the effectivity analysis and the optimization.
Technical Paper

Establishment of the Specification Design Technique by Multiple-Purpose Optimization of Sound Proof Package

2007-04-16
2007-01-1544
This paper describes an effective method with statistical energy analysis (SEA) for specifying the vehicle sound proof package that achieves the best balance between light weight and high sound insulation performance. For proposing the sound proof package in the early stages of vehicle development, it is necessary to assess a number of specifications and to pick the best design specifications for weight and sound proof performance. However, there are difficulties in achieving conflicting objectives simultaneously, and acoustic engineers need special technical know-how. In this study, a new automated optimization method is proposed that approaches the problem above. As a result, detailed sound insulation package specifications, including the thickness distribution of each part, can be obtained and these can be easily transferred to drawings. Moreover, the accuracy of this method is proven by a reduction in vehicle interior cabin sound pressure level
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Pushing V-Belt for Continuously Variable Transmission - Investigation for Clearance Between Elements, Strength of Element and Strength of Ring Material

2003-03-03
2003-01-0968
HONDA completed research and development of the Metal V-Belt for CVTs in-house for the purpose of reducing the minimum pitch radius. The newly developed belt is essential to the compactness of a CVT and increases the speed ratio range. Increase of ring stress caused by reducing the minimum pitch radius is treated by improvement of element shape, optimizing clearance between elements and between element and ring and improving materials.(1) In this paper, the optimization of clearance between elements, heat treatment of elements and optimization of ring material are described in detail. Optimum total clearance between elements for a virgin belt is defined by test results during operation using a specially engraved gap sensor and a telemeter system. Tolerance and conditions of heat treatment for elements are optimized concerning fatigue strength of the element nose.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Occupant Deceleration Control during Vehicle Crashes -Study of the Vehicle Mass Separation Model

2003-10-27
2003-01-2761
In order to minimize occupant injury in a vehicle collision, an approach was attempted to address this issue by optimizing the waveform of the vehicle body deceleration to reduce the maximum deceleration applied to the occupant. A previous study has shown that the mathematical solution to the optimal vehicle deceleration waveform comprised three stages: high deceleration, negative deceleration, and constant deceleration. A kinematic model with separated mass of the vehicle was devised to generate the optimal vehicle deceleration waveform comprising three stages including a one with negative deceleration in the middle. The validity of this model has been confirmed by a mathematical study on a one-dimensional lumped mass model. The optimal vehicle deceleration waveform generated by this method was then validated by a three-dimensional dummy simulation.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Toughness Improvement Through Water Jacket Optimization

2003-10-27
2003-01-3259
Improvement of engine cycle thermal efficiency is an effective way to increase engine torque and to reduce fuel consumption simultaneously. However, the extent of the improvement is limited by engine knock, which is more evident at low engine speeds when combustion flame propagation is relatively slow. To prevent engine damage due to knock, the spark ignition timing of a gasoline engine is usually controlled by a knock sensor. Therefore, an engine's ignition timing cannot be set freely to achieve best engine performance and fuel economy. Whether ignition timings for a multi-cylinder engine are the same or can be set differently for each cylinder, it is not desirable for each cylinder has big deviation from the median with respect to knock tendency. It is apparent that effective measures to improve engine knock toughness should address both uniformity of all cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine and improvement of median knock toughness.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Iterative Vibration Analysis for Form Changes in Large Degrees-of-Freedom Engine Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1290
Operational analysis of automotive engines using flexible multi-body dynamics is increasingly important from the viewpoint of multi-objective optimization as it can predict not only vibration, but also stress and friction at the same time. Still, the finite element (FE) models used in this analysis have large degrees-of-freedom, so iterative calculation takes a lot of time when there is form change. This research therefore describes a technique that applies a modal differential substructure method (a technique that reduces the degrees of freedom in a FE model) that can simulate form changes in FE models by changing modal mass and modal stiffness in reduced models. By using this method, non-parametric form change in FE model can be parametrically simulated, so it is possible to speed up repeated vibration calculations. In the proposed method, FE model is finely divided for each form change design area, and a reduced model of that divided structure is created.
Journal Article

Study on Wheel Stiffness Considering Balance between Driving Stability and Weight

2015-04-14
2015-01-1755
This paper studies various wheel stiffness configurations, with the aim of enhancing driving stability while minimizing the increase in weight associated with an increase in stiffness. Reinforcement was added to the wheel disk and the wheel rim of standard aluminum wheels for passenger vehicles in order to produce four wheels with different stiffness configurations. The effects of disk stiffness and rim stiffness on tire contact patch profiles and driving stability were quantitatively evaluated. From the results of tests with the four wheels, it was observed that disk stiffness and rim stiffness have differing effects on tire contact patch profiles, and on driving stability. Disk stiffness influences especially tire contact patch length, and tire contact patch length influences especially maneuverability in driving stability. Rim stiffness influences especially tire contact patch area, and tire contact patch area influences especially stability in driving stability.
Journal Article

Development of Smart Design Process for Light Weight Body in White

2015-04-14
2015-01-1365
This paper describes a new approach and specific design procedure for more lightweight automotive Body in White (BIW) design. For a BIW structure with a target value for static stiffness, joints with high stiffness sensitivity are selected and a lightweight BIW joint design chart is produced from calculations combining topology optimization and thickness optimization. Using this chart made it possible to theoretically assign an optimum spring value to the BIW structure for the purpose of lightweight design, enabling substantial weight reduction in the base model while maintaining the same stiffness performance.
Journal Article

Development of Improved Method for Magnetically Formed Decorative Painting

2014-11-11
2014-32-0045
Currently, there is a growing demand for application of plastic coverings for motorcycles in the market. Accordingly, decorative features for plastic coverings are increasingly important to enhance the attractiveness of exterior designs of those motorcycles. Under these circumstances, the magnetically formed decorative painting had been adopted to a mass-production model sold in Thailand in 2008. Magnetically formed decorative painting is a method in which the design patterns are formed by painting a material that contains flakes movable along with magnetic fields, while applying magnetic sheets in the ornamenting design shapes underneath the part being painted. It offers a three-dimensional appearance even though its surface has no protrusions or indentations. The degree of three-dimensionality on the paint surface appearance was defined as “plasticity” [1] (a term used in pictorial arts).
Journal Article

New Theoretical Approach for Weight Reduction on Cylinder Head

2015-04-14
2015-01-0495
Designing a lightweight and durable engine is universally important from the standpoints of fuel economy, vehicle dynamics and cost. However, it is challenging to theoretically find an optimal solution which meets both requirements in products such as the cylinder head, to which various thermal loads and mechanical loads are simultaneously applied. In our research, we focused on “non-parametric optimization” and attempted to establish a new design approach derived from the weight reduction of a cylinder head. Our optimization process consists of topology optimization and shape optimization. In the topology optimization process, we explored an optimal structure with the theoretically-highest stiffness in the given design space. This is to provide an efficient structure for pursuing both lightweight and durable characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process.
Journal Article

Establishment of Performance Design Process for Vehicle Sound-Roof Packages Based on SEA Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-0664
The process for setting the marketability targets and achievement methods for automotive interior quietness (as related to air borne noise above 400Hz, considered the high frequency range) was established. With conventional methods it is difficult to disseminate the relationship between the performance of individual parts and the overall vehicle performance. Without new methods, it is difficult to propose detailed specifications for the optimal sound proof packages. In order to make it possible to resolve the individual components performance targets, the interior cavity was divided into a number of sections and the acoustic performance of each section is evaluated separately. This is accomplished by evaluating the acoustical energy level of each separate interior panel with the unit power of the exterior speaker excitation. The applicability of the method was verified by evaluating result against predicted value, using the new method, during actual vehicle operation.
Journal Article

Prediction of Friction Drive Limit of Metal V-Belt

2015-04-14
2015-01-1138
When fluctuations in the speed of rotation of the drive pulley are transmitted to the driven pulley via the metal V-belt, the transmitted fluctuations become attenuated as friction force approaches a state of saturation. The research discussed in this paper focused on these fluctuations in the speed of rotation and developed an index for the slip state between the belt and the pulleys. The drive and driven pulleys were regarded as a one-dimensional vibrating system connected by elastic bodies, and changes in the state matrix of the system were focused on. It was determined that when all of the eigenvalues in this state matrix become real numbers, slip speed between the belt and the pulleys increases sharply. A method was proposed of estimating this behavior of the eigenvalues from changes in the speed of rotation of the drive and driven pulleys, and indexing the current slip state.
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