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Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Surface Pressure against Gasket in Consideration of Creep on Cylinder Head in Air-Cooled Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0104
A method was designed to predict the gasket surface pressure in consideration of creep which occurs on the surface of the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines. Creep caused by heat can cause major deformation on the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines, which may result in combustion gas leaking from between the cylinder and cylinder head. Until now, there have been no reports of methods to accurately predict phenomena relating to this deformation in the initial stage of engine design. This study combined values of strain and temperature occurring on the gasket side of the cylinder head, obtained through FEM analysis of steady heat transfer and thermal stress, with unit test results showing the domains in which the influence of the creep is critical or not. This information was used to design a method to determine whether or not an engine's specifications fell into a domain in which creep would have an effect, and predict surface pressure.
Journal Article

Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1476
A highly efficient two-motor plug-in hybrid system is developed to satisfy the global demands of CO2 reduction. This system switches three operation modes, what is called “EV Drive”, “Hybrid Drive” and “Engine Drive”, to maximize fuel efficiency according to the driving condition of the vehicle. Practical plug-in EV (Electric Vehicle) capability is also realized by adding a high-power on-board charger and a high capacity Li-ion battery to the original system. The outlines of the system components including a newly developed Atkinson cycle engine, a highly efficient electric coupled CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with built-in motor and generator, an integrated PCU (Power Control Unit) and an exclusive battery for plug-in HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) are described in this paper. In addition to the switching of three driving modes and the efficiency improvement of each device, cooperative control of the hybrid system is introduced.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

2011-08-30
2011-01-1987
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

Research into Optimal Specifications for Flexible Fuel Vehicle Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1097
Various plant-derived alternative fuels have been proposed in recent years as ways to curb the global warming that occurs from the CO2 that is emitted by internal combustion engines. One such fuel is bioethanol. In Brazil, flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) are used that can run on blends from 100% hydrous ethanol (E100) to gasoline containing 22% ethanol (E22). This research addresses the optimal specifications of a FFV engine. FFV engines use E100 and E22 in any ratio. E100 has a very high RON of approximately 110, while that of E22 is low at approximately 95. The researchers considered these characteristics when selecting a compression ratio capable of providing good performance at any ethanol blend ratio. Additionally, ethanol is a single-component fuel without low-boiling-point components, so it has poor combustion at low temperatures. In general, FFV engines are often built with one intake valve to enhance product usability at low temperatures.
Journal Article

Research on Clogging Mechanism of Multilayered Fuel Filters and Extension of Filter Life Span in Ethanol Blended Fuel

2011-11-08
2011-32-0570
Recently, the use of ethanol blended fuel is growing worldwide. Therefore, there is increasing needs for addressing issues relating to ethanol blended fuel use in gasoline engine fuel supply systems. In this paper, we focused on one of such issues, which is the reduced life of a multi-layered fuel filter used at inlet side of a fuel pump when it is used with ethanol blended fuel. In this study, we clarified that ethanol blended fuel tends to disperse dust particles contained in fuel to a greater extent than gasoline, and that it has a mechanism to accelerate clogging by concentrating the clogging only on the finest layer of the multi-layered filter. Also, in the process of clarifying this principle, we confirmed that dust particles dispersed by ethanol are coagulated when passing through the filter layers.
Journal Article

Study of High-Compression-Ratio Engine Combined with an Ethanol-Gasoline Fuel Separation System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2614
Bio-ethanol is used in many areas of the world as ethanol blended gasoline at low concentrations such as “E10 gasoline”. In this study, a method was examined to effectively use this small amount of ethanol within ethanol blended gasoline to improve thermal efficiency and high-load performance in a high-compression-ratio engine. Ethanol blended gasoline was separated into high-concentration ethanol fuel and gasoline using a fuel separation system employing a membrane. High-ethanol-concentration fuel was selectively used at high-load conditions to suppress knocking. In this system, a method to decrease ethanol consumption is necessary to cover the wide range of engine operation. Lower ethanol consumption could be achieved by Miller-cycle operation because decrease of the effective compression ratio suppresses knocking. However, high-load operation was limited due to the decrease in intake air volume with Miller-cycle operation.
Technical Paper

Development of Pd-Only Catalyst for LEV III and SULEV30

2015-04-14
2015-01-1003
This research is aimed at development of the catalyst for gasoline automobiles which uses only palladium (Pd) among platinum group metals (PGMs). And the conformity emission category aimed at LEV III-SULEV30. For evaluation, the improvement effect was verified for 2013 model year (MY) ACCORD (LEV II-SULEV) as the reference. As compared with Pd-rhodium (Rh) catalyst, a Pd-only catalyst had the low purification performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and there was a problem in the drop in dispersion of Pd by sintering, and phosphorus (P) poisoning.
Journal Article

Development of Temperature Estimation Method of Whole Engine Considering Heat Balance under Vehicle Running Conditions

2014-11-11
2014-32-0050
For detailed temperature estimates in the engine of a running motorcycle, newly researches were conducted on the method for calculation of temperature distribution using a three-dimensional (3D) thermal conductivity simulation after calculating the total balance of heat generation and heat dissipation of the engine using a one-dimensional (1D) thermal simulation. This project is targeted at air-cooled engines in which the cooling conditions vary significantly depending on the external shapes of the engines and the airflow around them. The heat balance is calculated using the 1D thermal simulation taking into account all the routes and processes for dissipation to the atmosphere of the heat that is generated by the combustion in the engine. The 1D engine cycle simulation is applied to calculate the heat transmission to the engine from the combustion. For the calculation of heat transfer within the engine, the engine components are converted to a one-dimensional model.
Technical Paper

Study of Knocking Damage Indexing Based on Optical Measurement

2015-04-14
2015-01-0762
Attempts were made to measure knocking phenomenon by an optical method, which is free from influences of mechanical noises and is allowing an easy installation to an engine. Using a newly developed high durability optical probe, the light intensity of hydroxyl radical component, which is diffracted from the emitted light from combustion, was measured. The intensity of this emission component was measured at each crank angle and the maximum intensity in a cycle was identified. After that, the angular range in which the measured intensity exceeded 85% of this maximum intensity was defined as “CA85”. When a knocking was purposely induced by changing the conditions of the engine operation, there appeared the engine cycles that included CA85 less than a crank angle of 4 degrees. The frequency of occurrence of CA85 equal to or less than 4 degrees within a predetermined number of engine cycles, which can be interpreted as a knocking occurrence ratio, was denoted as “CA85-4”.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0750
Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Study of CNG Fueled Two-Wheeled Vehicle with Electronically Controlled Gas Injection System

2005-10-12
2005-32-0034
Owing to its combustion characteristics and chemical composition, natural gas features cleaner emissions and lower CO2 compared to gasoline under equal thermal efficiency. Natural gas can be a promising alternative energy source to respond to crude oil exhaustion and global warming issues. Focusing on the utility of natural gas, a feasibility study on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -fueled two-wheeled vehicles has been conducted. A proto-type two-wheeled vehicle was made based on a 125 cm3 class gasoline-fueled scooter. To adapt the engine to the use of CNG fuel, an electronically controlled gas injection system was applied to the fuel supply system. To provide abrasion resistance of engine valves and valve seats, the specific matter of gas-fuel was improved. Furthermore, a lubricant circulation passage was added to maintain the temperature of the pressure reducing valve.
Technical Paper

Flexible-Fuel System for Small Motorcycles

2009-11-03
2009-32-0044
A flexible-fuel system for small motorcycles has been developed that can utilize both gasoline, and ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuel. For practicality, we aimed to develop a system that uses a minimum of additional parts. As a method to make both ethanol and gasoline available with the system, a control algorithm that estimates the ethanol concentration by utilizing the output voltage of an OXYGEN SENSOR and selects the appropriate injection quantity is employed. Usually, in automotive flexible-fuel vehicles (FFV), sub-tanks are mounted to ensure engine startability in cold temperatures. However, in small motorcycles, limitations of mounting space must be addressed. In this system, by clarifying the control logic and determining the difficult cases for cold temperature starts due to high ethanol concentration, configuring the indicator to promote gasoline mixture when the start is difficult enabled the elimination of the sub-tanks.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Formed-In-Place Gasket (FIPG) Liquid Sealant for Automotive Intake Manifold Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-0996
Intake manifold is a part of an engine that supplies fuel/air mixture to the cylinder heads. Recently, silicone FIPG has been used for the two part design of the intake manifold. It is known that a small, but significant, amount of gasoline fuel can penetrate through silicone FIPG layer due to the flexible nature of the siloxane backbone. Since gasoline permeation is becoming more important because of more severe regulations, it is found that a new polyacrylate based FIPG dramatically reduces the gasoline fuel permeation. This study compares this new technology, polyacrylate FIPG sealant with silicone FIPG sealant used today for vehicle powertrain gasketing applications. Adhesion investigation on both aluminum and magnesium alloys, and oil resistance are also discussed in this study.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Technical Paper

A Study on Shockless Combustion Change Control of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2940
A direct injection gasoline engine featuring a center-injection method that incorporates a high-pressure injector at the top center of the combustion chamber, has been developed. The engine is characterized by a significantly improved fuel economy and emissions performance as the result of the application of direct-injection stratified charge, DISC, which is one of the main features of the direct-injection engine. This paper describes a study on a change control method for switching between DISC and homogeneous charge combustion. The two forms of combustion employed in the new direct-injection engine differ in terms of combustion limits in relation to recirculated exhaust gas and air-fuel ratio. This causes the torque difference which is a specific issue in direct injection gasoline engines. The authors attempted to cope with the issue from the viewpoints of misfire prevention and fuel amount restriction in accordance with the torque required.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Monitoring System for Formula One Engines Using Ionic Current Measurement

2004-06-08
2004-01-1921
Formula One engines, which are the pursuit of the ultimate in performance, tend to be comparatively vulnerable to durability issues. These engines sometimes run under a state of unstable combustion as compensation for improved fuel economy. To cope with these issues, there have been strong demands in the racing field for a technology that will allow constant monitoring and prompt action to be carried out on system malfunctions and failures, as well as unstable combustion. The research program described in this paper deals with an onboard technology for monitoring combustion under all the operational conditions using ionic current measurement. The technology will possibly be applied to engine management and car-to-pit communications via telemetering. The scope of the control it offers includes; detection of misfire and hesitation, detection and management of detonation, and management of lean-burn combustion.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Toughness Improvement Through Water Jacket Optimization

2003-10-27
2003-01-3259
Improvement of engine cycle thermal efficiency is an effective way to increase engine torque and to reduce fuel consumption simultaneously. However, the extent of the improvement is limited by engine knock, which is more evident at low engine speeds when combustion flame propagation is relatively slow. To prevent engine damage due to knock, the spark ignition timing of a gasoline engine is usually controlled by a knock sensor. Therefore, an engine's ignition timing cannot be set freely to achieve best engine performance and fuel economy. Whether ignition timings for a multi-cylinder engine are the same or can be set differently for each cylinder, it is not desirable for each cylinder has big deviation from the median with respect to knock tendency. It is apparent that effective measures to improve engine knock toughness should address both uniformity of all cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine and improvement of median knock toughness.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emissions -The Example of Honda Insight

2001-11-12
2001-01-3722
In order to reduce CO2 emissions from automobiles, a highly fuel-efficient hybrid vehicle, the “Insight”, has been developed at Honda. Life cycle CO2 emissions are compared for the aluminum-bodied Insight, a simulated steel-bodied Insight, and a conventional gasoline vehicle. Life cycle CO2 emission is still dominated by the in-use fuel consumption. However, the contribution of CO2 emission from material use and processing could increase when the vehicle fuel consumption is greatly reduced. The use of recycled aluminum reduces CO2 emission from the aluminum-bodied Insight.
Technical Paper

Development of New 3.5 L V6 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1012
This paper introduces the newly developed super sports car engine mounted in the new model NSX. A super sports car engine was newly developed to satisfy the high power performance required by the body package. Higher power and compactness were simultaneously achieved by selecting an engine displacement of 3.5 L and by using a V6 layout and a turbocharger. This enabled to mount a power train that combines a hybrid motor with a newly developed transmission in the rear of the body. The lubrication system uses a dry sump system capable of maintaining reliable lubrication in all possible super sports car driving scenarios. The combustion system uses high tumble-flow ports, a direct injection and a port injection system that increase power performance and thermal efficiency, emission reduction. To support the increased heat load due to higher power, a 3-piece water jacket is used around the combustion chamber and the exhaust ports.
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