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Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations of Turbocharger's Bearing Losses

Fuel consumption in internal combustion engines and their associated CO2 emissions have become one of the major issues facing car manufacturers everyday for various reasons: the Kyoto protocol, the upcoming European regulation concerning CO2 emissions requiring emissions of less than 130g CO2/km before 2012, and customer demand. One of the most efficient solutions to reduce fuel consumption is to downsize the engine and increase its specific power and torque by using turbochargers. The engine and the turbocharger have to be chosen carefully and be finely tuned. It is essential to understand and characterise the turbocharger's behaviour precisely and on its whole operating range, especially at low engine speeds. The characteristics at low speed are not provided by manufacturers of turbochargers because compressor maps cannot be achieve on usual test bench.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electric Generators for Aerospace More Electric Architectures

This paper discusses the problem of designing electric machines (EM) for advanced electric generators (AEG) used in aerospace more electric architecture (MEA) that would be applicable to aircraft, spacecraft, and military ground vehicles. The AEG's are analyzed using aspects of Six Sigma theory that relate to critical-to-quality (CTQ) subjects. Using this approach, weight, volume, reliability, efficiency, and cost (CTQs) are addressed to develop a balance among them, resulting in an optimized power generation system. The influence of the machine power conditioners and system considerations are also discussed. As a part of the machine evaluation process, speeds, bearings, complexities, rotor mechanical and thermal limitations, torque pulsations, currents, and power densities are also considered. A methodology for electric machine selection is demonstrated. Examples of high-speed, high-performance machine applications are shown.
Technical Paper

Heat Exchanger Fouling Detection in Aircraft Environmental Control Systems

The operating environment of aircraft causes accumulation and build-up of contamination on both the narrowest passages of the ECS (Environmental Control System) i.e: the heat exchangers. Accumulated contamination may lead to reduction of performance over time, and in some case to failures causing AOG (Aircraft on Ground), customer dissatisfaction and elevated repair costs. Airframers/airlines eschew fixed maintenance cleaning intervals because of the high cost of removing and cleaning these devices preferring instead to rely on on-condition maintenance. In addition, on-wing cleaning is t impractical because of installation constrains. Hence, it is desirable to have a contamination monitoring that could alert the maintenance crew in advance to prepare and minimize disruption when contamination levels exceed acceptable thresholds. Two methods are proposed to achieve this task, The effectiveness of these methods are demonstrated using analytical and computational tools.
Technical Paper

Industry Activities Related to Aircraft Information Security

Commercial transport aircraft have adopted TCP/IP based onboard networking technology to integrate information interchange. This change along with the addition of a TCP/IP based air-ground data link will permit the aircraft network to establish links with ground networks and be integrated into the airline enterprise network. There are many challenging considerations when connecting a remote network to an enterprise network. These challenges are multiplied when that remote network is constantly in motion, both physically and in terms of its link to the ground network. An important consideration in any enterprise network is the element of security. AEEC has published ARINC Report 811: Commercial Aircraft Information Security Concepts of Operation and Process Framework [1] as a guide for the airlines as they consider how to deal with this new challenge.
Technical Paper

Integrated Modular Concepts for Improved ECLSS Command and Data Handling

Current Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), particularly on large systems, have a tendency to include several heterogeneous processing elements. This approach is also the default in the commercial aircraft industry. However, Honeywell has been extremely successful in the past decade in using an integrated modular approach to command and data handling for aircraft avionics. This approach, dubbed “Fifth Generation Avionics” by the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, has resulted in significant reductions in the size, weight, power, and acquisition costs of the data handling subsystem. Logistics, modification, and upgrade costs also decreased considerably. While commonality is maximized in the integrated modular architecture, each application continues to be independent with internal designs completely under the control of the application developer.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Testing of Brazed Space Station IATCS Materials

Increased nickel concentrations in the IATCS coolant prompted a study of the corrosion rates of nickel-brazed heat exchangers in the system. The testing has shown that corrosion is occurring in a silicon-rich intermetallic phase in the braze filler of coldplates and heat exchangers as the result of a decrease in the coolant pH brought about by cabin carbon dioxide permeation through polymeric flexhoses. Similar corrosion is occurring in the EMU de-ionized water loop. Certain heat exchangers and coldplates have more silicon-rich phase because of their manufacturing method, and those units produce more nickel corrosion product. Silver biocide additions did not induce pitting corrosion at silver precipitate sites.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Real Time Bleed Air Contamination Monitor

The bleed air contamination monitor was developed at Honeywell to ensure that our products provide the highest quality bleed air to aircraft environmental control systems. The bleed air contamination monitor is currently for ground based applications only. It is being developed into an on board system for future applications. Current Aircraft Cabin Air Quality measurement techniques are very labor intensive and require days or even weeks of laboratory analysis to provide results. This is unacceptable from a manufacturing and service perspective. Development of a real time analyzer began in the early 1990s and has progressed to a point where a product is ready for introduction that not only provides real time information regarding engine air contamination, but is also easy for operators to use with a minimum amount of training.
Technical Paper

Inerting Aircraft Fuel Tanks - Reducing the Hazard

Aircraft accidents caused by explosion of the vapor within the fuel tanks have been the subject of many recent articles. Methods of either suppressing the combustion or preventing the ignition have been considered. Indeed, solutions such as liquid nitrogen, halon, and reticulated foam have been installed on production aircraft. However, these have proved to be expensive to operate or are being phased out. By working together, the authors have developed the capability to provide fully integrated On-Board Inert Gas Generating Systems (OBIGGS) based on novel hollow fiber membrane technology. An overview of the advantages of such an approach is presented together with an outline of the system design method. The importance of considering the effect of differing flight profiles, and the inter-reactions of the OBIGGS, with the Fuel System, Engine Bleed Air Management, and Environmental Control Systems in the design process are emphasized.