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Technical Paper

Robust Braking/Driving Force Distribution and Active Front Steering Control of Vehicle System with Uncertainty

Uncertainties present a large concern in actual vehicle motion and have a large effect on vehicle system control. We attempt a new robust control design approach for braking/driving force distribution and active front steering of vehicle system with uncertain parameters. The braking/driving force distribution control is equivalently studied as the integral direct yaw moment control. Then the control design is carried out by using a state-space vehicle model with embedded fuzzy uncertainties. By taking the compensated front wheel steering angle and the direct yaw moment as the control inputs, a feedback control that aims to compensate the system uncertainty is proposed. In a quite different angle, we employ fuzzy descriptions of the uncertain parameters. The controlled system performance is deterministic, and the control is not if-then rules-based. Fuzzy descriptions of the uncertain parameters are used to find an optimal control gain.
Technical Paper

Handling Stability Optimization of Mining Dump Truck Based on Parameter Identification

Good handling stability becomes very important for heavily-laden electric wheel dump trucks that are operated on rough roads. To improve handling stability of mining dump trucks, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping of the hydro-pneumatic suspension were considered as optimization variables. In this paper, based on the Daubechies wavelet's compactness and regularization and least-square method, the nonlinear stiffness and damping are identified. In order to verify the results of the parameter identification, the multi-body system dynamic model of the truck was built in ADAMS/view. By comparing the simulated results and tested ones, we find acceleration-history and power spectral density of acceleration are very close. And then, based on the approximate model method, the optimization model was built in ISIGHT. The nitrogen column and the orifice diameter were defined as the design variables. Finally, the handling stability was optimized by applying the genetic algorithms method.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Realizable k - ε Turbulence Model Especially for the Simulation of Road Vehicle

Realizable k-ε turbulence model has been used widely for engineering development. In this turbulence model, the default values of empirical coefficients such as C₂, σk and σε are obtained from some particular experiments. They are a good choice for most simulations-though may be not the best choice for simulating the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicle. In order to improve the accuracy of simulation, a set of new empirical coefficients should be designed especially for simulating the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicle. These empirical coefficients are found out by DoE (design of experiments) in this paper. Firstly the value range of empirical coefficients is decided by the laws that the aerodynamic force coefficients change with altering of empirical coefficients. Secondly 20 sets of empirical coefficients are obtained randomly by applying optimal Latin Hypercube method in Isight.
Technical Paper

Research on Three Main Lightweight Approaches for Automotive Body Engineering Considering Materials, Structural Performances and Costs

Lightweight automotive body can be obtained by developing new body constructions, using lightweight materials and structural optimizations, etc. Usually, lighter materials and structural optimizations are main aspects considered in lightweight automotive body engineering. In fact, material costs and manufacturability play more important roles than others in lightweight design. Three lightweight design approaches are considered. The first approach of lightweight design is to replace steels with lighter materials using equal rigidity design method. The second approach is a single objective optimization of mass reduction with materials selection and cost penalty. The third approach is a multi-objective optimization of mass reduction and cost reduction using multi-material concept. These three approaches are applied to an automotive body design problem considering the side impact. Different optimization methods are used to obtain different results.
Technical Paper

Reliability Optimal Design of B-pillar in Side Impact

The traditional deterministic optimal design is mostly based on meeting regulatory requirements specified in impact standards, without taking the randomness of the impact velocity and angle at the real world situation into consideration. This often leads to the optimization results that converge to the boundary constraints, thus cannot meet the reliability requirements of the product design. Structure members of B-pillar (e.g. inner panel, outer panel, and the reinforcing plate) play a major role in the side impact safety performance. This paper dealt with optimization of B-pillar by considering its dimensions and materials as the design variables, and the impact velocity and angle from real-world traffic accident conditions as the random variable inputs. Using a combination of design of experiment, response surface models, reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method, a B-pillar was constructed based on the product quality engineering.
Journal Article

Vehicle Parameter Estimation Based on Full-Car Dynamic Testing

Effectively obtaining physical parameters for vehicle dynamic model is the key to successfully performing any computer-based dynamic analysis, control strategy development or optimization. For a spring and lump mass vehicle model, which is a type of vehicle model widely used, its physical parameters include sprung mass, unsprung mass, inertial properties of the sprung mass, stiffness and damping coefficient of suspension and tire, etc. To minimize error, the paper proposes a method to estimate these parameters from vehicle modal parameters which are in turn obtained through full-car dynamic testing. To verify its effectiveness, a visual vehicle with a set of given parameters, build in the Adams(Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems)/Car environment, is used to perform the dynamic testing and provide the testing data for the parameter estimation.
Journal Article

A Semi-Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Diesel Blends for Combustion Simulations

With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Calibration and Stitching Methods of the Around View Monitor System of Articulated Multi-Carriage Road Vehicle for Intelligent Transportation

The Around View Monitor (AVM) system of the long-body road vehicle with multiple articulated carriages usually suffers from the incomplete distortion correction of fisheye cameras on the side of the coach and the irregular image stitching area caused by the change of relative position of the cameras on different carriages while the vehicle is in motion. In response to these problems, a set of calibration and stitching methods of AVM are proposed. When the system is in the calibration mode, first a two-step optimization method is adopted to solve the polynomial radial distortion-based fisheye camera model. Then, a robust corner detection technique is proposed to extract all the chessboard corners and square vertexes in the system calibration scene. With the calibrated camera model and geometric information of the mounted system, the initial look-up table from the fisheye images to a top view of the vehicle is extrapolated.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated in a Miniature Car Using Numerical Simulation

Aerodynamic noise generated in a miniature car had been evaluated using numerical simulation. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was applied to analyze the transient flow field and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy was employed to conduct acoustic analysis. The time accurate flow data was obtained using a finite volume flow solver on an unstructured grid. The flow field around the rear view mirror was obtained by numerical for two cases with different side view mirrors. Moreover, the distribution of acoustic source was predicted on side windows, and the aerodynamic noise was lowed through optimizing the shape of the rear view mirror and some experiments were done to validate the effect. Present study ascertained the feasibility and applicability of finite volume method (FVM) with SGS model towards prediction of aerodynamic noise generated in production vehicle.