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Technical Paper

A Development of Urea Solution Injection Quantity Decision Logic for SCR System

In this project, phenomena in a SCR catalyst, such as heat transfer and catalytic reactions, are modeled numerically. The model is simplified to be integrated on an electronic control unit. The calibration process for this model has been developed, which is performed on gas bench and validated on a vehicle equipped with a Urea-SCR system and a Rapid Prototype Control Unit. With this simplified SCR reaction model, it is possible to estimate NH3 consumption and properly control the urea injection quantity with less calibration efforts.
Technical Paper

Development of Valvetrain System to Improve Knock Characteristics for Gasoline Engine Fuel Economy

It is difficult to reach higher compression ratios of the gasoline engine even though higher compression ratios improve thermal efficiency. One of the barriers is large torque drop led by knocking. Extensive researches to suppress knocking of the gasoline engine have been conducted. It is focused on lowering the temperature of fuel mixture in combustion chamber at compression top dead center (TDC). This paper covers the new valvetrain system to decrease the temperature of exhaust valve bottom (combustion) side. Hollow head and stem sodium filled valve (HHSV) have shown more heat transfer from combustion chamber to valve seat insert and valve guide, and higher thermal conductivity valve seat insert (HVSI) and valve guide (HVG) help to decrease valve temperature lower by higher heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Cooling Air Duct and Dust Cover Shape for Brake Disc Best Cooling Performance

Owing to the enhanced performance of engines these days, more heat should be dissipated in the braking system. Failure of doing this properly causes temperature rise in the brake disc which result in the brake fade, disc distortion, brake judder, etc. A cooling-air-duct was proposed as a solution to prevent these from happening. In this paper, we present our work based on experiments optimized parameters such as direction, location, shapes and the size of the duct for the cooling-air-duct installation in real cars. We installed the duct extended from a front bumper to a rear wheel guard. Experimental parameters were compared with theoretical analysis using the impinging jet analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were determined by using the finite elements method (FEM). We found that our experimental data is supportive of theoretical analysis. We believe that our results should serve an useful guideline for designing the cooling-air-duct for braking system.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Flow in the Engine Intake System

To design an optimum engine intake system, a flow model for the intake manifold was developed by the method of characteristics. The flow in the intake manifold was one-dimensional, and finite difference equations were derived from the governing equations of flow. The thermodynamic properties inside a cylinder were found by the first law of thermodynamics, and the boundary conditions were formulated using a steady flow model. By comparing the calculated results with experimental data, the appropriate boundary conditions and convergence limits for a flow model were established. From this model, design variables for the intake system were investigated. The optimum manifold length became shorter when the engine speed were increased. The effect of intake valve timings on inlet air mass was also studied by this model. Advancing intake valve opening decreased inlet air mass slightly, and the optimum intake valve closing was found.
Technical Paper

Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion

Numerical investigation of engine performance and emissions of a six-stroke gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion at low load conditions is presented. In order to identify the effects of additional two strokes of the six-stroke engine cycle on the thermal and chemical conditions of charge mixtures, an in-house multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with high fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library was employed. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Two power strokes per cycle were achieved using multiple injections during compression strokes. Parametric variations of injection strategy viz., individual injection timing for both the power strokes and the split ratio that enable the control of combustion phasing of both the power strokes were explored.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Ventilated Brake Disc Connected to a Wheel

The role of a brake disc is to convert the kinetic energy of automobiles into thermal energy caused by friction between the brake pads and disc surfaces. The braking performance of an overheated disc is decreased due to hot judder and fade. Hence, the cooling technology of a brake disc is one of the most important issues related to automobile safety. In the present study, the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of a ventilated brake disc are conducted numerically. Some geometries of automotive parts such as bearings, hubs and wheels are considered in this study. The commercial code ANSYS CFX is used to simulate the fluid flow and the conjugate heat transfer which includes conduction and convection. To evaluate the cooling performance in each case, the results, including the flow patterns of cooling air inside the wheel and the heat transfer coefficient distribution at the disc surfaces, were investigated and compared for various disc-hub combinations.