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Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

2014-04-01
2014-01-1040
The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

Combined Condensing Air-Conditioning System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0712
In order to improve the fuel consumption ratio of the vehicle, a great deal of research is being carried out to improve air-conditioning efficiency. Increasing the efficiency of the condenser is directly connected to the power consumption of the compressor. This paper describes an experimental method of using an additional water-cooled condenser to reduce power consumption and decrease discharge pressure of the air-conditioning system. First, the principle of a combined cooling (water + air) method was evaluated theoretically. Next, experimental proof was conducted with the additional water-cooled condenser. The shape and structure is similar to the plate type of the transmission oil cooler used in a radiator. Through a number of tests, it was found that it is possible is to reduce power consumption of compressor by decreasing discharge pressure.
Journal Article

Development of Virtual Road Wheel Input Forces for Belgian Ground

2014-04-01
2014-01-0381
Numerical durability analysis is the only approach that can be used to assess the durability of vehicles in early stages of development. In these stages, where there are no physical prototypes available, the road wheel forces (or spindle forces) for durability testing on Belgian PG (Proving Ground) must be predicted by VPG (Virtual Proving Ground) or derived from the measured forces of predecessor vehicles. In addition, the tuning parts and geometry are not fixed at these stages. This results in the variation of spindle forces during the development stages. Therefore, it is not reasonable to choose the forces predicted at a specific tuning condition as standard forces. It is more reasonable to determine the standard forces stochastically using the DB of the measured forces of predecessor vehicles. The spindle forces measured or predicted on Belgian PG are typically stationary random.
Technical Paper

Effects of Composite Sandwich Endplates on the Cold Start Characteristics of PEMFC

2010-04-12
2010-01-1091
End-plates are highly stiff plates that hold together the components composing a fuel cell stack, i.e. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs), Gas Distribution Layers (GDLs) and bipolar plates, offering sufficient contact pressure between them. The proper contact pressure is required not only to improve energy efficiency of a stack by decreasing ohmic loss but also to prevent leakage of fluids such as hydrogen, air, or coolant. When a fuel cell starts in cold environment, heat generated in a fuel cell stack as a result of electrochemical reactions should not be used much to increase the temperature of endplates but to melt ice inside the stack to prevent ice-blocking and to increase the temperature near the three-phase-boundary on MEAs. However, to satisfy the high stiffness required, massive metallic endplates have been used despite their inferior thermal characteristics: high thermal conductivity and large thermal inertia.
Technical Paper

Development of Valvetrain System to Improve Knock Characteristics for Gasoline Engine Fuel Economy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1639
It is difficult to reach higher compression ratios of the gasoline engine even though higher compression ratios improve thermal efficiency. One of the barriers is large torque drop led by knocking. Extensive researches to suppress knocking of the gasoline engine have been conducted. It is focused on lowering the temperature of fuel mixture in combustion chamber at compression top dead center (TDC). This paper covers the new valvetrain system to decrease the temperature of exhaust valve bottom (combustion) side. Hollow head and stem sodium filled valve (HHSV) have shown more heat transfer from combustion chamber to valve seat insert and valve guide, and higher thermal conductivity valve seat insert (HVSI) and valve guide (HVG) help to decrease valve temperature lower by higher heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Study on the Long-Term Aging-Resistance of Anti-Vibration Rubber in the Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0725
Anti-vibration rubbers in vehicle play an important role in restricting vibration generated from engine and road. But, degradation occurs when rubber is exposed for a long time to heat, light, ozone and etc. These make the rubber hard and lose its initial properties. The rubber change makes N.V.H performance of vehicle the worse, and gives the discomfort to the passengers. To reduce the change of rubber properties, sulfur-donor and heat stable cross-linking co-agent vulcanization system have been introduced in the developed natural rubber compounds of the anti-vibration rubber parts. These lead to a reduction of degradation of material properties, maintenance of the initial properties and increase of the fatigue life.
Technical Paper

Selecting the Spot Welding Condition of Multi-Layer Vehicle Structure

1997-02-24
970083
An automobile's structure is generally connected by spot welding the sheets together. Sometimes more than three layers of sheets can be used in a certain location for spot welding due to the limits of design conditions. Static strength and the fatigue life characteristics can be changed according to the welding conditions, which depend on the material, the thickness, and the number of sheets. Setting the appropriate conditions of multi-layer spot welding can be determined by analyzing static strength and fatigue life. For converting multi-layer spot welding to that of twofold layer with equal strength, the converting method can be suggested from static and fatigue test results. The increasing rate of static strength is larger than that of fatigue life, so it is reasonable to use fatigue life for limit condition.
Technical Paper

In search of SULEV-compliant THC emission reduction technologies

2000-06-12
2000-05-0298
This paper describes the development of THC reduction technologies compliant with SULEV regulations. Technologies embodied by the developmental work include improvement of fuel spay atomization, quick warm-up through coolant control shut off, and acceleration of fuel atomization for the fast rise of cylinder head temp inside the water jacket as well as the improvement of combustion state. The technologies likewise entail reduced HC while operating in lean A/F condition during engine warm-up with the cold lean-burn technology, individual cylinder A/F control for improvement of catalytic converting efficiency, aftertreatment such as thin-wall catalyst, HC absorber and EHC and etc., through vehicle application evaluation in cold start. We carried out an experimental as well as a practical study against SULEV regulations, and the feasibility of adopting these items in vehicle was likewise investigated.
Technical Paper

Low-pressure molding compound hood panel for a passenger car

2000-06-12
2000-05-0110
Low-pressure molding compound (LPMC) is a new kind of composite material which can be used for automotive body panels. LPMC has similar mechanical properties compared to conventional sheet molding compound (SMC) but excellent moldability due to the different thickening system. In this paper, we prepared LPMC hood prototype for a passenger car using a low-cost tooling. Inner panel and outer panel were made of general-density- and low-density-grade LPMC, respectively, in order to maximize weight reduction maintaining surface quality. Physical properties containing tensile strength, flexural modulus, notched Izod impact strength of those samples were investigated. In addition, CAE simulation was also done for strength analysis of the hood assembly.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tempering on Mechanical and Fatigue Properties in Gas-Carburized Cr-Mo Gear Steel

1997-02-24
970709
The effects of tempering on carburized Cr-Mo gear steel were investigated through mechanical and fatigue tests. Specimens were carburized at 900°C for 180 minutes, and then oil quenched at 150°C for 10 minutes of holding time and cooled to room temperature. The subsequent tempering process was performed to 160°C for 90 minutes. Surface hardness and residual compressive stress were decreased by tempering treatment, whereas tensile strength, yield strength and impact energy were increased. Bending fatigue endurance limits for both tempered and untempered specimens were same as 779MPa. The strength of roller contact fatigue is also not greatly influenced by tempering treatment. Thermal distortion for carburized transfer driven gear before and after tempering exhibited a similar distribution. Microstructural changes during tempering were also discussed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Temperature Properties in Al Matrix Composite Fabricated by the Low Pressure Squeeze Infiltration Process

1994-03-01
940809
Al matrix composites containing alumina (Al2O3) fibers are fabricated by the low pressure (25MPa) squeeze infiltration process which is suitable for the low cost mass production. Mechanical properties at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures (250°C, 350°C) are improved due to the presence of reinforcements. Upto 350°C, composites maintain a reasonable strength, which is much better than strength of the conventional Al alloy. Composites have equivalent wear rates to those of Ni - resist cast iron. Wear behavior is changed with the sliding speed. At low sliding speed, wear proceeds by the excessive failure of matrix and fiber, whilst, at higher sliding speed, matrix fracture near fiber plays a major role in wear. Wear resistance of 125°C is inferior to that of room temperature due to the reduction of mechanical properties followed by matrix softening and poor bonding.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure and Reinforcing Method of Spot Welded Area at the Stage of Vehicle Development

1996-02-01
960553
Vehicle body structures are formed by thousands of spot welds, and fatigue failure of vehicle structures occur near the spot welds after driving a long way at a durability test road. It is necessary to know accurately the reason of the fatigue failure of the spot weld in the developing stage in order to reinforce it. Many investigations have been done regarding the strength of spot welded joints, contributing to understand its fatigue strength. In the developing process, a fatigue failed spot welded area can be repaired by CO2 welding or another method to continue the test. To know the effect of reinforcing these welds, several methods of welding were analyzed and compared to spot welding. With the results of this test, the appropriate repair method can be used instead of spot welding during the development of a new car and the best design guide can be given for the strength.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

1996-02-01
960577
The objective of this study is to investigate mechanical properties and fatigue crack propagation behavior in hybrid metal matrix composites by squeeze infiltration method (15% Al2O3 + SiCw/6061Al). The mechanical properties of Al2O3+SiCw/Al composites including tensile strength, yield strength, Young's modulus, were improved compared with those of unreinforced alloy and Al203/Al composites. The hybrid composites were more ductile than Al2O3/Al composites. Fatigue crack propagation rates of both Al2O3/Al and Al2O3+SiCw/Al composites showed a similar behavior in region II. Their propagation rates were higher in entire ▵K region compared with that of 6061 Al alloy. From the crack path morphology, fatigue cracks propagated linearly and smoothly in 6061 Al alloy. However, in the metal matrix composites cracks tend to avoid the reinforcements promoting crack deflection. It was observed that crack deflection enhanced crack closure due to wedging phenomenon.
Technical Paper

An Application of Acoustic Metamaterial for Reducing Noise Transfer through Car Body Panels

2018-06-13
2018-01-1566
This paper presents the design of an additional structure based on acoustic metamaterial (AMM) for the reduction of vibro-acoustic transfer function of a car body panel. As vehicles are lighter and those engine forces are bigger recently, it has become more difficult to reduce the vibration and noise transfer through body panels by using just conventional NVH countermeasures. In this research, a new approach based on AMM is tried to reduce the vibration and noise transfer of a firewall panel. First, a unit cell structure based on the locally resonant metamaterial is devised and the unit cell’s design variables are studied to increase the wave attenuation in the stop band of a dispersion curve, where the Floquet-Bloch theorem is used to estimate the dispersion curve of a two-dimensional periodic structure. Also, the vibration transfer and the vibro-acoustic transfer are predicted in a FE model of meta-plate which is composed of a periodic system of the devised unit cell.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Slot Disc Shape for Improving Brake Fade Performance

2018-10-05
2018-01-1883
Due to improvements in vehicle powertrain performance, friction material fade performance is becoming an important topic. For this reason, needs for studies to improve thermal characteristics of the brake system is increasing. Methods for improving the fade characteristics have several ways to improve the thermal characteristic of friction materials and increase disc capacity. However, increasing disc capacity(size) have some risk of weight and cost rise, and friction factor improvements in friction material tend to cause other problems, such as increasing squeal wire brush noise and increasing metal pick up on disc surface. Therefore, a slot disc study is needed to overcome the problems discussed previously. Currently, there is few research history for slot disc related to fade and metal pickup improvements.
Technical Paper

Development of 4-Cylinder 2.0L Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using 3-D CAE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0156
To satisfy the global fuel economy restrictions getting stricter, various advanced cooling concepts, like active flow control strategy, cross-flow and fast warm-up, have been applied to the engine. Recently developed Hyundai’s next generation 4-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine, also adopts several new cooling subsystems. This paper reviews how 3-D CAE analysis has been extensively used to evaluate cooling performance effectively from concept phase to pre-production phase. In the concept stage, the coolant flow in the water jacket of cylinder head and block was investigated to find out the best one among the proposed concepts and the further improvement of flow was also done by optimizing cylinder head gasket holes. Next, 3-D temperature simulation was conducted to satisfy the development criteria in the prototype stage before making initial test engines.
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