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Technical Paper

MEMS Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement of Exhaust Gas

To meet Euro6 regulation particulate matter MEMS sensor is suggested. This sensor detects induced charges by PM. To increase sensitivity of the sensor, surface area of the sensor is increased by MEMS process. Sensor is made by low resistive silicon. Total size is 4.3 mm x 59.4 mm x 1 mm and size of sensor part is 4.3 mm x 13 mm. On the backside of the sensor, Pt heater is fabricated to remove piled PM on sensor part. After sensor part, charge amplifier is used to measure the induced charge of the sensor. From FFT of sensor signal, it can sense 5.46 mg/m₃ of PM. In this paper, MEMS devices for exhaust system monitoring of automobiles are investigated. PM emitted from diesel engine is charged particle. Charge-induced-type PM sensor we designed can measure by real time and it doesn't need particle collection apparatus
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Sound Quality of Vehicle Horns through Acoustic Characteristics Analysis and CAE Method Development

It is necessary for vehicle horns not only to satisfy regulations on the sound level but also to fulfill various demands related with sound quality. For example, a disk type horn which is attached on most of small size vehicles has been required to improve its sharp feeling sound. However, the improvement of horn sound has been deterred mainly due to the deficiency of the understanding on how design factors are related with emotional judgments on horn sound. In addition, a proper CAE tool is not available in the process of horn design since it is difficult to describe multi-physical phenomena engaged with horns. The purpose of this study is to improve the sound quality of a disk type horn. In order to achieve this goal, firstly, acoustic characteristics of horns were obtained through a series of experiments. In addition, various sound quality metrics were examined in order to derive design factors affecting sound quality enhancement.
Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight CFRP Coil Spring

Today, all manufacturers of vehicles are up for the challenge to abide in automobile emission control laws. Weight reduction is one of the best solutions to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions. The most effective method for the said idea is to have lightweight materials to some parts of vehicle using the FRP(Fiber Reinforced Plastics). In order to obtain good mechanical properties of FRP, continuous fiber should be used. But it is difficult to design and manufacture FRP parts using continuous fiber because of material properties and molding process. In this paper, it is used CF(carbon Fiber) and Epoxy to make a composite material. Properties of this CFRP can be predicted through analysis. Tests and simulations of specimen are performed as every step progresses for correlation. A spring can be designed to meet all requirements for specific performance. The CFRP spring is made by new devices and methods and can be applied to vehicle for practical use.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
Technical Paper

Combined Condensing Air-Conditioning System

In order to improve the fuel consumption ratio of the vehicle, a great deal of research is being carried out to improve air-conditioning efficiency. Increasing the efficiency of the condenser is directly connected to the power consumption of the compressor. This paper describes an experimental method of using an additional water-cooled condenser to reduce power consumption and decrease discharge pressure of the air-conditioning system. First, the principle of a combined cooling (water + air) method was evaluated theoretically. Next, experimental proof was conducted with the additional water-cooled condenser. The shape and structure is similar to the plate type of the transmission oil cooler used in a radiator. Through a number of tests, it was found that it is possible is to reduce power consumption of compressor by decreasing discharge pressure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Time-Resolved Nano-Particle and THC Emissions of Wall-Guided GDI Engine

A nano-sized PM and THC emission characteristics were investigated according to the fuel injection strategy such as a pressure and timing in the GDI engine. On the part-load condition, the particulate emissions exhibited a strong sensitivity to the injection timing. The fuel injection pressure also had a great association with the nano-particles and THC. A size of PM exhausted from the GDI engine located near 10nm on the part-load. In contrast, accumulation mode particles within 60 - 80nm mainly exhausted during the cold transient start phase. Increment of fuel injection pressure positively affected on the nano-particle and THC emissions during the start of the engine, as well.
Technical Paper

Development of Control Logic and Optimization of Catalyst in DeNOx System with Secondary Injection for Euro 6

A technical approach to reduce NOx and to minimize the fuel consumption caused by the DeNOx aftertreatment system was introduced. The NEDC mode test of the HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) DeNOx system was done with a Euro 5 vehicle (ETW (Equivalent Test Weight) = 1,810 kg, 143 kW, 430 N⋅m), which resulted in that the Euro 6 legislation standards were met. The NOx and HC emissions were, respectively, measured to be 0.059 g/km and 0.087 g/km with the hydrothermal-aged catalysts, and CO₂ was increased by ≺ 4%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Composite Sandwich Endplates on the Cold Start Characteristics of PEMFC

End-plates are highly stiff plates that hold together the components composing a fuel cell stack, i.e. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs), Gas Distribution Layers (GDLs) and bipolar plates, offering sufficient contact pressure between them. The proper contact pressure is required not only to improve energy efficiency of a stack by decreasing ohmic loss but also to prevent leakage of fluids such as hydrogen, air, or coolant. When a fuel cell starts in cold environment, heat generated in a fuel cell stack as a result of electrochemical reactions should not be used much to increase the temperature of endplates but to melt ice inside the stack to prevent ice-blocking and to increase the temperature near the three-phase-boundary on MEAs. However, to satisfy the high stiffness required, massive metallic endplates have been used despite their inferior thermal characteristics: high thermal conductivity and large thermal inertia.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Vibration Suppression Control Strategy for Motor System of Eco-Friendly Vehicles

Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Flex Fuel system with Delphi Heated injector application

After the second worldwide oil crisis, Brazil put in place by 1975 a strategic plan to stimulate the usage of ethanol (from sugar cane), to be mixed to the gasoline or to be sold as 100% ethanol fuel (known as E100). To enable an engine to operate with both gasoline and ethanol (and their mixtures), by 2003 the “Flex Fuel” technology was implemented. By 2012 calendar year, from a total of about 3.8 million vehicles sold in the Brazilian market, 91% offered the “Flex Fuel” technology, and great majority used a gasoline sub-tank to assist on cold starts (typically below 15°C, where more than 85% of ethanol is present in fuel tank). The gasoline sub-tank system suffers from issues such as gasoline deterioration, crash-worthiness and user inconvenience such as bad drivability during engine warm up phase. This paper presents fuel injector technologies capable of rapidly electrically heating the ethanol fuel for the Brazilian transportation market.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust System for Post-SULEV

A new exhaust system has been developed to cope with post-SULEV (Super Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle) regulation by newly designed hardware of exhaust system. This paper will describe the various new technologies used for achieving the post-SULEV standards, such as Conicat (cone-type metal catalyst), dual-wall pipe, pipe-type metal catalyst, ultra thin wall monolith and HC trap system for the improvement of catalyst light-off time. The tested data on 2.0L SULEV vehicle indicate that Conicat(cone-type metal catalyst) and HC trap (hydrocarbon absorbing catalyst) have more positive characteristics, and are expected to show the enhanced HC reduction performance with the optimization of emission system.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automatic Climate Control(ACC) Algorithm and the Roof Mounted System for Busses

Air conditioning is defined as the process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space. As in the definition, the important actions involved in the operation of an air conditioning system are temperature and humidity control, air purification and movement. For these conditions this paper proposes a Automatic Climate Control(ACC) system of the bus. The system has cooling, heating, and dehumidifying modes, and is governed by dual 8-bit microprocessors. These modes are broken down into sub-modules dealing with control of the compressor, blower speed, damper position, air purifier, ventilators, preheater, air mixing damper and so on.
Technical Paper

Model Based Control for a Pressure Control Type CVT

A model based control algorithm for the pressure control type CVT has been developed. First, a P-line is proposed from the steady state relationship between the primary and secondary pressure for the given speed ratio to predict the shift performance. The P-line shows the pressure difference from the steady state primary pressure to the maximum(or minimum) pressure available for the given secondary pressure. It is found from the P-line that the bigger the pressure difference, the faster the shift speed. Based on the steady state characteristics of the pressure control type ratio control valve(RCV), the model based control algorithm is proposed. In the model based control, ratio control solenoid valve(RCSV) control duty is supplied in the feedforward loop.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pulse Width Modulation Pressure Control System for Automatic Transmission

Generally, the widely used hydraulic control system in automatic transmissions is pulse width modulation (PWM) type. It consists in a PWM solenoid valve and a reducing type second stage valve, so called pressure control valve (PCV), to amplify pressure or flow rate. In this study, the mathematical models of the PWM solenoid valve and the PCV with moderate complexity are proposed. Then, their behavior is analyzed from the steady state characteristics. Finally, we find that there are good matches between the dynamic simulation results and the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Bio-Based Composites and Their Applications for Auto Interior Parts

Polylactide (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and sugar beets, has attracted much attention for automotive parts application. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the PLA composites including stereocomplexed with L- and D-PLA, we developed the unit processes such as fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. We investigated D-lactic acid fermentation with a view to obtaining the strains capable of producing D-lactic acid, and through catalyst screening test for polycondensation and depolymerization reactions, we got a new method which shortens the whole reaction time of lactide synthesis step. Poly(d-lactide) is obtained from the ring-opening polymerization of d-lactide. Also we investigated several catalysts and polymerization conditions.
Technical Paper

In search of SULEV-compliant THC emission reduction technologies

This paper describes the development of THC reduction technologies compliant with SULEV regulations. Technologies embodied by the developmental work include improvement of fuel spay atomization, quick warm-up through coolant control shut off, and acceleration of fuel atomization for the fast rise of cylinder head temp inside the water jacket as well as the improvement of combustion state. The technologies likewise entail reduced HC while operating in lean A/F condition during engine warm-up with the cold lean-burn technology, individual cylinder A/F control for improvement of catalytic converting efficiency, aftertreatment such as thin-wall catalyst, HC absorber and EHC and etc., through vehicle application evaluation in cold start. We carried out an experimental as well as a practical study against SULEV regulations, and the feasibility of adopting these items in vehicle was likewise investigated.