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Technical Paper

Development of Composite Body Panels for a Lightweight Vehicle

Recently weight reduction is increasingly needed in automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency and to meet a CO2 emission requirement. In this paper, we prepared composite body panels for the lightweight vehicle based on a small passenger car. Fender, roof, door, side outer panel, and tailgate are made from hand layup using a glass/carbon hybrid reinforcement. Hood is made from low pressure sheet molding compound (SMC) to investigate feasibility of mass production. Both hand layup and low pressure SMC materials are newly developed and their physical properties are examined. CAE simulation was done for strength analysis and optimization of thickness for the body panels.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Sound Quality of Vehicle Horns through Acoustic Characteristics Analysis and CAE Method Development

It is necessary for vehicle horns not only to satisfy regulations on the sound level but also to fulfill various demands related with sound quality. For example, a disk type horn which is attached on most of small size vehicles has been required to improve its sharp feeling sound. However, the improvement of horn sound has been deterred mainly due to the deficiency of the understanding on how design factors are related with emotional judgments on horn sound. In addition, a proper CAE tool is not available in the process of horn design since it is difficult to describe multi-physical phenomena engaged with horns. The purpose of this study is to improve the sound quality of a disk type horn. In order to achieve this goal, firstly, acoustic characteristics of horns were obtained through a series of experiments. In addition, various sound quality metrics were examined in order to derive design factors affecting sound quality enhancement.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Time-Resolved Nano-Particle and THC Emissions of Wall-Guided GDI Engine

A nano-sized PM and THC emission characteristics were investigated according to the fuel injection strategy such as a pressure and timing in the GDI engine. On the part-load condition, the particulate emissions exhibited a strong sensitivity to the injection timing. The fuel injection pressure also had a great association with the nano-particles and THC. A size of PM exhausted from the GDI engine located near 10nm on the part-load. In contrast, accumulation mode particles within 60 - 80nm mainly exhausted during the cold transient start phase. Increment of fuel injection pressure positively affected on the nano-particle and THC emissions during the start of the engine, as well.
Technical Paper

Combined Condensing Air-Conditioning System

In order to improve the fuel consumption ratio of the vehicle, a great deal of research is being carried out to improve air-conditioning efficiency. Increasing the efficiency of the condenser is directly connected to the power consumption of the compressor. This paper describes an experimental method of using an additional water-cooled condenser to reduce power consumption and decrease discharge pressure of the air-conditioning system. First, the principle of a combined cooling (water + air) method was evaluated theoretically. Next, experimental proof was conducted with the additional water-cooled condenser. The shape and structure is similar to the plate type of the transmission oil cooler used in a radiator. Through a number of tests, it was found that it is possible is to reduce power consumption of compressor by decreasing discharge pressure.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Flow Analysis and Catalytic Characteristics for the Various Catalyst Cell Shapes

The shape of unit cell of catalytic converter has great influence on the conversion efficiency and pressure drop characteristics. Therefore, the properties of design parameters of catalyst monolith were analyzed and the parameters of various cell shapes of catalyst were compared. Also, the numerical study of a three dimensional compressible flow in a Close-coupled Catalyst Converter (CCC) system was performed to investigate the flow characteristics and the flow distribution of exhaust gases. Unsteady flow analysis shows that severe interferences of each pulsating exhaust gas flow as well as geometric factors (junction, mixing pipe, cell shape etc.) influence greatly on the flow uniformity and flow characteristic in substrate. The results can be applied for the catalytic converter design.
Technical Paper

Model Based Control for a Pressure Control Type CVT

A model based control algorithm for the pressure control type CVT has been developed. First, a P-line is proposed from the steady state relationship between the primary and secondary pressure for the given speed ratio to predict the shift performance. The P-line shows the pressure difference from the steady state primary pressure to the maximum(or minimum) pressure available for the given secondary pressure. It is found from the P-line that the bigger the pressure difference, the faster the shift speed. Based on the steady state characteristics of the pressure control type ratio control valve(RCV), the model based control algorithm is proposed. In the model based control, ratio control solenoid valve(RCSV) control duty is supplied in the feedforward loop.
Technical Paper

Incorporation of Friction Material Surface Inhomogeneity in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis to Improve the Accuracy of Brake Squeal Analysis

The sliding surface of the brake friction material is not uniform but composed of random contact plateaus with a broad pressure distribution, which are known to closely related to the triggering mechanism of friction induced noise and vibrations. The non-uniform contact plateaus are attributed to the various ingredients in the friction material with a broad range of physical properties and morphology and the size and stiffness of the plateau play crucial roles in determining the friction instability. The incorporation of friction surface inhomogeneity is, therefore, crucial and has to be counted to improve the accuracy of the numerical calculation to simulate brake noise. In this study, the heterogeneous nature of the friction material surface was employed in the simulation to improve the correlation between numerical simulations and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pulse Width Modulation Pressure Control System for Automatic Transmission

Generally, the widely used hydraulic control system in automatic transmissions is pulse width modulation (PWM) type. It consists in a PWM solenoid valve and a reducing type second stage valve, so called pressure control valve (PCV), to amplify pressure or flow rate. In this study, the mathematical models of the PWM solenoid valve and the PCV with moderate complexity are proposed. Then, their behavior is analyzed from the steady state characteristics. Finally, we find that there are good matches between the dynamic simulation results and the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 1, Engine Simulation

As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Promising technologies under consideration are: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency improving options are well-understood individually, in this study we directly compare them to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). For this purpose we undertake a comprehensive simulation of the above technology options using a GT-Power model of the engine with a kinetics based knock combustion sub-model to optimize the fuel efficiency, taking into account the total in-cylinder dilution effects, due to internal and external EGR, on the combustion.
Technical Paper

Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure for Light-Duty Diesel Engines

In recent years, emission regulations have been getting increasingly strict. In the development of engines that comply with these regulations, in-cylinder pressure plays a fundamental role, as it is necessary to analyze combustion characteristics and control combustion-related parameters. The analysis of in-cylinder pressure data enables the modelling of exhaust emissions in which characteristic temperature can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure, and the pressure can be used for other investigations, such as optimizing efficiency and emissions through controlling combustion. Therefore, a piezoelectric pressure sensor to measure in-cylinder pressure is an essential element in the engine research field. However, it is difficult to practice the installation of this pressure sensor on all engines and on-road vehicles owing to cost issues.