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Technical Paper

Development of Engine Control Using the In-Cylinder Pressure Signal in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1418
Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
Technical Paper

Front Loading NVH Test on the Highly Dynamic Powertrain Test Bed

2011-05-17
2011-01-1512
Advanced powertrain test, which is simulating real road load condition, was performed on the dynamic test bed. This cutting edge system can reproduce real road resistance based upon the vehicle dynamic model and wheel slip model. This wheel slip function is simulating the real behavior of the powertrain wheel as close as possible at each wheel independently. Additionally, low inertia of dynamometer motor themselves is another advantage for this purpose. This test bed is capable of testing all kinds of 2WD and 4WD powertrain configuration regardless of transmission type. Also, vehicle configuration can be mounted and tested on this test bed with small addition of supporting system alternatively. For the application, a four wheel drive powertrain was mounted on the test bed and driveline noise and vibration behavior such as transfer rattling noise and tip in/out shock were reproduced on this test bed.
Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

2011-05-17
2011-01-1553
As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

Accurate Reproduction of Wind-Tunnel Results with CFD

2011-04-12
2011-01-0158
Aerodynamic simulation results are most of the time compared to wind tunnel results. It is too often simplistically believed that it suffice to take the CAD geometry of a car, prepare and run a CFD simulation to obtain results that should be comparable. With the industry requesting accuracies of a few drag counts when comparing CFD to wind tunnel results, a careful analysis of the element susceptible of creating a difference in the results is in order. In this project a detailed 1:4 scale model of the Hyundai Genesis was tested in the model wind tunnel of the FKFS. Five different underbody panel configurations of the car were tested going from a fully paneled car to a car without panels. The impact of the moving versus static ground was also tested, providing over all ten different experimental results for this car model.
Journal Article

Research for Brake Creep Groan Noise with Dynamometer

2012-09-17
2012-01-1824
This paper deals with creep groan noise in vehicles which is a low frequency vibration problem at 20∼500Hz that appears in low brake pressures and extremely low speed especially in automatic transmission car, where there is a transition from static to dynamic condition. The vibration causing the noise is commonly thought to result from friction force variation between brake disc and pad in stick-slip phenomena. Simulation results are confirmed through dynamometer testing. Then presented noise contribution factor analysis by experimental approach between chassis components.
Technical Paper

Test Method for Operational Deflection Shape Analysis of Squealing Brake Disc in Dynamic Condition

2012-09-17
2012-01-1807
In order to reduce brake squeal noise, it is important to identify operational deflection shape (ODS) of brake disc while squeal arises. However, in the conventional modal analysis and optical measurement, it is only able to identify limited ODS because of the technical limits. This paper details the test method to identify ODS in radial and tangential as well as axial direction of a brake disc in driving condition. Vibrational signal of a rotating disc was obtained by triaxial accelerometer installed to solid type discs/cooling fins of ventilated type discs, then ODS of disc were analyzed through digital signal processing.
Journal Article

Direct Sound Radiation Testing on a Mounted Car Engine

2014-06-30
2014-01-2088
For (benchmark) tests it is not only useful to study the acoustic performance of the whole vehicle, but also to assess separate components such as the engine. Reflections inside the engine bay bias the acoustic radiation estimated with sound pressure based solutions. Consequently, most current methods require dismounting the engine from the car and installing it in an anechoic room to measure the sound emitted. However, this process is laborious and hard to perform. In this paper, two particle velocity based methods are proposed to characterize the sound radiated from an engine while it is still installed in the car. Particle velocity sensors are much less affected by reflections than sound pressure microphones when the measurements are performed near a radiating surface due to the particle velocity's vector nature, intrinsic dependency upon surface displacement and directivity of the sensor. Therefore, the engine does not have to be disassembled, which saves time and money.
Technical Paper

Development of Two-Shot Injection-Compression Soft Instrument Panel

2015-03-10
2015-01-0065
In order to reduce the cost and weight of the soft-foamed instrument-panel (IP), we developed the new IP which is made by the 2 kinds of injection methods. One is the compression-injection with back-foamed foil inserted, and the other is two-shot injection with the passenger-side airbag (PAB) door. We named it ‘IMX-IP’ which means that all components (‘X’) of the IP with different resins are made In a Mold. The development procedure of this technology was introduced (1) Design of the new injection mold through TRIZ application, (2) Optimization of the injection conditions and back foamed-foil for minimizing the foam loss and thickness deviation, (3) Development of CAE method for two-shot injection compression, (4) Reliability performance test and application to the mass production. The reduction of the processes through the two-shot molding with back foamed-foil inserted made it possible to enhance soft feeling on IP and reduce the cost and weight simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Vision Based Path-Following Control System Using Backstepping Control Methodology

2008-04-14
2008-01-0202
This paper describes an automated path following system using vision sensor. Lateral control law for path following is especially underlined which is developed by using the backstepping control design methodology. To establish the proposed control system, the lateral offset to the reference path, the heading angle of vehicle relative to tangent line to the path, and path curvature are required. Those inputs to the controller have been calculated through Kalman filter which is frequently adopted for the purpose. The lane mark detection has been achieved in an ECU (Electric Control Unit) platform with vision sensor. The yaw rate and side-slip angle also needed in the controller are estimated by Kalman estimator. To show the performance of the proposed controller under different speeds, experiment has been conducted on a proving ground having straight and curve sections with the curvature of about 260m.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

2008-04-14
2008-01-0501
Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on DGPS/RTK Based Path Following System Using Backstepping Control Methodology

2007-08-05
2007-01-3579
This paper mainly focuses on a lateral control law for pre-given path following which is developed by using the backstepping control design methodology. The position information of the vehicle is obtained by Real Time Kinematic DGPS, and the yaw rate and side-slip angle used in controller are estimated by Kalman estimator. To show the performance of the proposed controller under different speed and various path curvature conditions, the results are given through experiments which are executed on proving ground especially designed for high maneuvering test of which minimum radius of curvature is about 60 m.
Technical Paper

Partial Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis for Cylindrical Conformal Contact Model Considering Effect of Surface Wave

2007-08-05
2007-01-3533
Numerous machine elements are operated in mixed lubrication regime where is governed by a combination of boundary and fluid film effects. The direct contact between two surfaces reduces a machines life by increasing local pressure. In order to estimate machine's life exactly, the effect of asperity contact should be considered in the lubrication model. In this study, new 3-dimensional partial elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (PEHL) algorithm is developed. The algorithm contains the procedures to find out solid contact regions within the lubricated regime and to calculate both the pressure by fluid film and the contact pressure between the asperities of the solids. Using the algorithm, we conducted the PEHL analysis for the contact between the rotating shaft and the inside of pinion gear. To investigate the effect of surface topology two different surfaces with sinusoidal profile are used. Both film thickness and pressure are calculated successfully through the PEHL algorithm.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation on the Raindrop Transportation in the Turbulent Flow Field of the Heavy-Duty Intake System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1191
In this study, two-phase flow simulations have been performed for the intake system of a commercial truck. The intake duct, which is the first component in heavy-duty engine, is located in the upper side of a cabin. The flow in the intake system is a typical two-phase flow with the air as the continuous phase and the water as the dispersed phase during rainy weather. The numerical two-phase simulation is performed by using the Largrangian model as implemented in STAR-CD. The influence of the water droplets on the airflow as well as droplet break-up and interactions of the droplets with the walls can be taken into account. Two and three cyclone model inside the intake system have been investigated by numerical simulations. The computational results can be used to get a better understanding of the physics of the flow inside the intake system and to optimize the water separation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of the Luxury Sound Quality of a Premium Class Passenger Car

2009-05-19
2009-01-2183
Luxury sound is one of the most important sound qualities in a premium passenger car. Previous work has shown that, because of the effects of many different interior sounds, it is difficult to evaluate the luxury sound objectively by using only the A-weighted sound pressure level. In this paper, the characteristics of such sound were first investigated by a systematic approach and a new objective evaluation method for luxury sound-the luxury sound quality index--which was developed by the systematic combination of the seven major interior sound quality indexes based on path analysis. The seven major sounds inside a passenger car were selected by a basic investigation evaluated by the members of a luxury automotive club. Seven major interior sound quality indexes were developed by using sound metrics, which are the psychoacoustic parameters, and the multiple regression method used for the modeling of the correlation between objective and subjective evaluation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Gap Deflector Efficiency for Reduction of Sunroof Buffeting

2009-05-19
2009-01-2233
The efficiency of a gap-type of deflector for suppressing vehicle sunroof buffeting is studied in this work. Buffeting is an unpleasant low frequency booming caused by flow-excited Helmholtz resonance of the interior cabin. Accurate prediction of this phenomenon requires accounting for the bi-directional coupling between the transient shear layer aerodynamics (vortex shedding) and the acoustic response of the cabin. Numerical simulations were performed using a CFD/CAA numerical method based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The well established LBM approach provides the time-dependent solution to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and directly captures both turbulent and acoustic pressure fluctuations over a wide range of scales given adequate computational grid resolution. In this study the same gap-type deflector configuration is installed on two different types of vehicles, a SUV and a sedan.
Technical Paper

Virtual Testing and Correlation with Spindle Coupled Full Vehicle Testing System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0993
This paper describes an approach to simulate spindle coupled full vehicle durability tests for the purpose of completing virtual durability evaluations on components and full vehicles before a prototype is available. The reproduction of measured spindle loads was achieved on a virtual model of a passenger car coupled to a 4 Degree of Freedom (DOF) and 6 DOF spindle coupled test system. The tools and process improvements developed here will aid both test and analysis engineers in working closer together in solving their durability problems. By using Remote Parameter Control® (RPC®) technology in the virtual world, analysts have a new method to understand the virtual model by reproducing field-measured or generic road predicted signals for a variety of road surfaces. With newly created test rig models and a user friendly RPC™ iteration process, virtual testing that accurately replicates laboratory tests are now a reality.
Technical Paper

Test Method Development and Understanding of Filter Ring-off-Cracks in a Catalyzed Silicon Carbide (SiC) Diesel Particulate Filter System Design

2008-04-14
2008-01-0765
As the use of diesel engines increases in the transportation industry and emission regulations tighten, the implementation of diesel particulate filter systems has expanded. There are many challenges associated with the design and development of these systems. Some of the key robustness parameters include regeneration, efficiency, fuel penalty, engine performance, and durability. One component of durability in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is the filter's ability to resist ring-off-cracking (ROC). ROC is described as a crack caused primarily by thermal gradients, differentials, and the resulting stresses within the DPF that exceed its internal strength. These cracks usually run perpendicular to the substrate flow axis and typically result in the breaking of the substrate into separate halves.
Technical Paper

Suppression of Open-Jet Pressure Fluctuations in the Hyundai Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0803
Peak pressure fluctuation amplitudes in the ¾ open-jet test-section of the Hyundai Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel have been reduced from root-mean-square levels equal to 6% of the test-section dynamic pressure to levels of less than 0.5% over almost the full wind speed range of the tunnel. The improvement was accomplished using a retrofit of the test-section collector. Using an analysis of the physics of the problem, it was found that the HAWT pressure fluctuations could be accurately modeled as a resonance phenomenon in which acoustic modes of the full wind tunnel circuit are excited by a nozzle-to-collector edgetone-feedback loop. Scaling relations developed from the theory were used to design an experiment in 1/7th scale of the HAWT circuit, which resulted in the development of the new collector design. Data that illustrate the benefit of the reduction in pressure fluctuation amplitudes on passenger-car aerodynamic force measurements are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Corrosion Test Mode Considering Environmental Condition

2002-03-04
2002-01-1231
Accelerated simulation of vehicle corrosion in a controlled environment not only involves large chambers for actual vehicle tests, but also requires careful consideration of interactions between various parameters given a short time period within which the test is bounded. A new corrosion durability test mode reproducing various field conditions using salt spray, climatic, sunlight simulation and cold chambers has been developed. Verification of the test mode is carried out using four actual vehicle corrosion tests correlated against used cars of Nort h America and Northern Europe. The process of new corrosion test mode is discussed along with the characteristics of the test chambers.
Technical Paper

Premixed Combustion Modeling in an SI Engine Considering the Burned Gas Composition

2005-05-11
2005-01-2108
Conventional combustion models are suitable for predicting flame propagation for a wrinkled flamelet configuration. But they cannot predict the burned gas composition. This causes the overestimation of burned gas temperature and pressure. A modified method of combustion simulation was established to calculate the chemical composition and to investigate their ultimate fate in the burned gas region. In this work, the secondary products of combustion process, like CO and H2, were considered as well as the primary products like CO2 and H2O. A 3-dimensional CFD program was used to simulate the turbulent combustion and a zero dimensional equilibrium code was used to predict the chemical composition of burned gas. With this simple connection, more reasonable temperature and pressure approaching the real phenomena were predicted without additional time costs.
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