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Technical Paper

Influence of Both Catalyst Geometry and Fuel Sulfur Content on NOX Adsorber Poisoning

2001-05-07
2001-01-1934
NOx adsorbers are very sensitive to sulfur poisoning and future fuel standards are unlikely to be sufficient to prevent the system from requiring periodic desulfation procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the effects of low fuel sulfur content such as 50 ppm and 10 ppm on the NOx adsorber efficiency for a diesel application. Through this study, the influence of the substrate cell geometry has also been assessed. The use of a 10 ppm sulfur fuel is not enough to maintain, at a high level, the NOx adsorber performance during a 40,000 km aging test. The desulfation criterion (efficiency loss of 30%) is reached after the first 16,000 km. However, the desulfation operation is not enough to recover the initial catalyst performance and the poisoning velocity increases as the catalyst ages. The hexagonal cell substrate catalyst is less sensitive to sulfur poisoning than a square cell substrate catalyst so that its desulfation frequency is much lower.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Fluctuations on Combustion in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Simulations

2001-03-05
2001-01-1226
Modelling small and large scale fluctuations of fuel distribution is of high interest for stratified direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Homogeneous combustion models need to be extended or replaced in order to account for these fluctuations. They are presently neglected in most engine simulations. Effects of mean fuel/air equivalence ratio gradient have been recently included in previous homogeneous mixture approaches. To account for local fluctuations of mixture composition, the new model ECFM-Z has been developed on the basis of recent Direct Numerical Simulation results and Coherent Flame Surface modelling. The model has been implemented in a CFD code (KMB) The influence of mixture fraction is integrated in the Extended Coherent Flame Surface combustion model. The model is based on a conditional approach. Unburnt hydrocarbons produced by lean flame local extinctions are taken into account.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Sensors Head Gasket for Knock Localization

2003-03-03
2003-01-1117
In order to determine the area where knock occurs in a single cylinder engine, an acoustic methodology needs a minimum of four simultaneous pressure measurements in the combustion chamber. A specific cylinder head gasket integrating 12 pressure sensors has been developed and tested. The gasket is based on a bonded multilayer technology including high temperature piezoelectric cells, metallic and insulating sheets and printed circuit films. The total thickness is close to 1.25 mm (1/20 inch) and allows a straight forward substitution of the original gasket without modification. The sensors have large frequency bandwidth (typically 3-100 kHz) and withstand severe conditions (heat, combustion, pressure, vibrations, static pre-stress, electromagnetic fields and shocks). Signal processing adaptation of the dedicated exploitation software has brought good success for the single cylinder prototype, which remains operational after 100 hours of extreme conditions running (high knock).
Technical Paper

New Knock Localization Methodology for SI Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1118
A methodology has been developed to determine, for every cycle on which significant knock is detected, the area in which self-ignition occurs. This methodology is based on the exploitation by a dedicated algorithm of a minimum of 4 simultaneous combustion chamber pressure measurements. The algorithm has been first tested on the results of engine knocking simulation, then applied with success on a single-cylinder engine equipped with classical pressure transducers and with an instrumented cylinder head gasket developed for this application. The results obtained with these two kinds of transducers on several engine configurations and tunings are similar. If the timing and intensity of knock events depend on all engine parameters, its location is especially sensitive to such design parameters as fluid motion into the combustion chamber and spark plug position.
Technical Paper

Improving Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off by using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Mode

2010-10-25
2010-01-2162
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design for a Highly Downsized Gasoline Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1794
The combination of air charging and downsizing is known to be an efficient solution to reduce CO2 emissions of modern gasoline engines. The decrease of the cubic capacity and the increase of the specific performance help to reduce the fuel consumption by limiting pumping and friction losses and even the losses of energy by heat transfer. Investigations have been conducted on a highly downsized SI engine to confirm if a strong decrease of the displacement (50 %) was still interesting regarding the fuel consumption reduction and if other ways were possible to improve further more its efficiency. The first aim of our work was to identify the optimal design (bore, stroke, displacement, …) that could maximize the consumption reduction potential at part load but also improve the engine's behaviour at very high load (up to 3.0 MPa IMEP from 1000 rpm). In order to do that, four engine configurations with different strokes and bores have been tested and compared.
Technical Paper

SCR for Passenger Car: the Ammonia-Storage Issue on a Fe-ZSM5 Catalyst

2009-06-15
2009-01-1929
A comprehensive experimental approach has been developed for a Fe-ZSM5 micro-porous catalyst, through a collaborative project between IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). Tests have first been conducted on a synthetic gas bench and yielded estimated values for the amount of NH3 stored on a catalyst sample. These data have further been compared to those obtained from an engine test bench, in running conditions representative of the entire operating range of the engine. 15 operating points have been chosen, considering the air mass flow and the exhaust temperature, and tested with different NH3/NOx ratios. Steady-state as well as transient conditions have been studied, showing the influence of three main parameters on the reductant storage characteristics: exhaust temperature, NO2/NOx ratio, and air mass flow.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Matching and Evaluating Methods for Euro 6 and Efficient Two-stage Turbocharging Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1229
While fuel efficiency has to be improved, future Diesel engine emission standards will further restrict vehicle emissions, particularly of nitrogen oxides. Increased in-cylinder filling is recognized as a key factor in addressing this issue, which calls for advanced design of air and exhaust gas recirculation circuits and high cooling capabilities. As one possible solution, this paper presents a 2-stage boosting breathing architecture, specially dedicated to improving the trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption instead of seeking to improve specific power on a large family vehicle equipped with a 1.6-liter Diesel engine. In order to do it, turbocharger matching was specifically optimized to minimize engine-out NOx emissions at part-load and consumption under common driving conditions. Engine speed and load were analyzed on the European driving cycle. The key operating points and associated upper boundary for NOx emission were identified.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flex Fuel Vehicle: Impact on Powertrain's Design and Calibration

2010-10-25
2010-01-2087
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Mean-Value Model of a Fuel-Flexible Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0937
Among the last years, environmental concerns have raised the interest for biofuels. Ethanol, blended with gasoline seems particularly suited for the operation of internal combustion engines, and has been in use for severals years in some countries. However, it has a strong impact on engine performance, which is emphasized on recent engine architectures, with downsizing through turbocharging and variable valve actuation. Taking all the benefits of ethanol-blended fuel thus requires an adaptation of the engine management system. This paper intends to assess the effect of gasoline-ethanol blending from this point of view, then to describe a mean-value model of a fuel-flexible turbocharged PFI-SI engine, which will serve as a basis for the development of control algorithms. The focus will be in this paper on ethanol content estimation in the blend, supported by both simulation and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Turbine Efficiency Estimation for Fault Detection Application

2010-04-12
2010-01-0568
In nowadays diesel engine, the turbocharger system plays a very important role in the engine functioning and any loss of the turbine efficiency can lead to driveability problems and the increment of emissions. In this paper, a VGT turbocharger fault detection system is proposed. The method is based on a physical model of the turbocharger and includes an estimation of the turbine efficiency by a nonlinear adaptive observer. A sensitivity analysis is provided in order to evaluate the impact of different sensors fault, (drift and bias), used to feed the observer, on the estimation of turbine efficiency error. By the means of this analysis a robust variable threshold is provided in order to reduce false detection alarm. Simulation results, based on co-simulation professional platform (AMEsim© and Simulink©), are provided to validate the strategy.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pollutant Emissions Using Combined Tabulated Detailed Kinetics and Reduced Kinetics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0628
In the context of low consumption and low emissions engines development, combustion processes modeling is a challenging subject as the requirements for accurately controlled pollutant emissions are becoming more stringent. From a scientific point of view, it is a major source of in-depth investigations as the chemical processes involved are strongly coupled to the flow characteristics. Among the various approaches developed recently to account for these processes in realistic configurations, tabulated techniques appear to be a promising way. They induce a good compromise between the accuracy of detailed chemistry and the computational time necessary to calculate complex configurations. Tabulation approaches were firstly developed to address the modeling of species concentrations in stationary combustors. They consist basically of pre-computed chemical kinetics using detailed mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Urea-SCR Process Applied to Lean-burn SI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2776
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Generating Thermal Conditions to Regenerate a DPF: Impact of the Reductant on the Performances of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-1085
The influence of the type of fuel and the feeding means to a DOC, in order to regenerate a DPF, was investigated. Diesel fuel in cylinder late post-injection was compared to the injection in the exhaust line, through an exhaust port injector, of diesel fuel, B10 (diesel fuel containing 10% of esters) and gasoline. Diesel fuel exhaust injection resulted in a deteriorated conversion efficiency, while the incorporation of esters to the diesel fuel was demonstrated to have no influence. Gasoline exhaust injection led to less HC slip than diesel fuels. Temperature dynamics resulting from injection steps showed taught that the shorter the hydrocarbons (within the tested fuels), the slower the response. These differences can be caught by simple models, leading to interesting opportunities for the model-based control of the DPF inlet temperature during active regenerations.
Technical Paper

Which Fuel Properties for Improved CAI Combustion? Study of Fuel Impacts on the Operating Range of a CAI PFI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1100
This paper presents the major results of an International Consortium study carried out by IFP and focused on the evaluation of fuel impacts on Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. The formulation and tests of two adapted fuel matrix have allowed identifying and evaluating the main fuel properties that can improve CAI combustion for a maximum enlargement of the CAI operating range. CAI combustion mode appears as one promising solution for the development of low CO2 gasoline engines. Fuel properties can then be key parameters to improve the performances of CAI engines. During a first step of the study, steady state tests have been performed on a single cylinder Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engine, with real fuels.
Technical Paper

Detailed Particulate Characterization from HCCI Combustion for Future DPF Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-1185
This paper presents the detailed characterization of particulate emissions from a NADI™ dual mode engine (HCCI at low load and conventional combustion at high load). Morphology, composition and chemical reactivity of the particulate matter generated on an engine running in HCCI mode have been specified and compared to the conventional mode reference. Results showed that HCCI combustion formed particles with a higher volatile organic fraction due to the relatively high level of HC generated by this kind of combustion. Advanced soot characterization emphasized that HCCI soot is oxidized at a slower reaction rate than conventional soot, but with a lower temperature. This last characteristic could partially compensate the poor continuous regeneration effect due to low NO2 emission levels observed in HCCI combustion. Microscopic observation and particle sizing did not show significant differences between HCCI and conventional soot.
Technical Paper

Well to Wheels Analysis of Biofuels vs. Conventional Fossil Fuels : a Proposal for Greenhouse Gases and Energy Savings Accounting in the French Context

2008-04-14
2008-01-0673
The recent development of biofuel production worldwide is closely linked to GHG savings objectives and to regional agricultural policies. Many existing studies intend to evaluate the net non renewable energy and GHG savings associated to the various biofuel production pathways. However, there is no consensus on the results of those studies. The main explanations of variations among the results are the following: energy consumption and GHG emissions of the reference fossil pathway, data used for the representation of farming processes and biofuel production processes, accounting for carbon storage in agricultural soils, reference use of the land, choice of an allocation method in case of coproduction. There is a strong drive in the European Union for a certification on the sustainability of biofuel pathways.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of Power Split Devices in Combined Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1313
The paper discusses different alternative choices regarding the simulation and control of combined hybrid vehicles with a simple or compound power split device (PSD). These choices concern the causal representation of PSD both in a vehicle model and in the supervisory controller, the structure of the supervisory controller, and the pathway to generate the setpoints to the component-level controllers. Quasistatic and high-frequency simulations provide the example applications to assess the competing approaches.
Technical Paper

Modelling Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engines: Towards Predictive Real Time Simulators

2009-04-20
2009-01-0675
Due to increasingly stringent regulations, reduction of pollutant emissions and consumption are currently two major goals of the car industry. One way to reach these objectives is to enhance the management of the engine in order to optimize the whole combustion process. This requires the development of complex control strategies for the air and the fuel paths, and for the combustion process. In this context, engine 0D modelling emerges as a pertinent tool for investigating and validating such strategies. Indeed, it represents a useful complement to test bench campaigns, on the condition that these 0D models are accurate enough and manage to run quite fast, eventually in real time. This paper presents the different steps of the design of a high frequency 0D simulator of a downsized turbocharged Port Fuel Injector (PFI) engine, compatible with real time constraints.
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