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Technical Paper

Improving Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off by using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Mode

2010-10-25
2010-01-2162
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design for a Highly Downsized Gasoline Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1794
The combination of air charging and downsizing is known to be an efficient solution to reduce CO2 emissions of modern gasoline engines. The decrease of the cubic capacity and the increase of the specific performance help to reduce the fuel consumption by limiting pumping and friction losses and even the losses of energy by heat transfer. Investigations have been conducted on a highly downsized SI engine to confirm if a strong decrease of the displacement (50 %) was still interesting regarding the fuel consumption reduction and if other ways were possible to improve further more its efficiency. The first aim of our work was to identify the optimal design (bore, stroke, displacement, …) that could maximize the consumption reduction potential at part load but also improve the engine's behaviour at very high load (up to 3.0 MPa IMEP from 1000 rpm). In order to do that, four engine configurations with different strokes and bores have been tested and compared.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Matching and Evaluating Methods for Euro 6 and Efficient Two-stage Turbocharging Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1229
While fuel efficiency has to be improved, future Diesel engine emission standards will further restrict vehicle emissions, particularly of nitrogen oxides. Increased in-cylinder filling is recognized as a key factor in addressing this issue, which calls for advanced design of air and exhaust gas recirculation circuits and high cooling capabilities. As one possible solution, this paper presents a 2-stage boosting breathing architecture, specially dedicated to improving the trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption instead of seeking to improve specific power on a large family vehicle equipped with a 1.6-liter Diesel engine. In order to do it, turbocharger matching was specifically optimized to minimize engine-out NOx emissions at part-load and consumption under common driving conditions. Engine speed and load were analyzed on the European driving cycle. The key operating points and associated upper boundary for NOx emission were identified.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flex Fuel Vehicle: Impact on Powertrain's Design and Calibration

2010-10-25
2010-01-2087
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Urea-SCR Process Applied to Lean-burn SI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2776
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Valve-lift Strategy in a CAI™ Engine using Exhaust Gas Re-Breathing - Part 1: Experimental Results and 0D Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-0299
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions without major modifications of the engine design. The CAI™ concept is based on the auto-ignition of a fuel mixture highly diluted with burnt gases in order to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. In a 4-stroke engine, large amounts of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder by re-breathing them through the exhaust ports during the intake stroke using a 2-step exhaust valve-lift profile. The interaction between the intake and exhaust flows during the intake stroke was identified as a key parameter to control the subsequent combustion in a CAI™ PFI engine. Consequently, the intake valve-lift profile as well as the exhaust re-opening profile can potentially be used as control parameters for this combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel: Managing the Flash Point Issue - Consequences on Engine Behavior

2009-06-15
2009-01-1807
Facing more and more stringent regulations, new solutions are developed to decrease pollutant emissions. One of them have shown promising and relevant results. It consists of the use of ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel Nevertheless, the addition of ethanol to Diesel fuel affects some key properties such as the flash point. Consequently, Diesel blends containing ethanol become highly flammable at a temperature around ambient temperature. This study proposes to improve the formulation of ethanol based diesel fuel in order to avoid flash point drawbacks. First, a focus on physical and chemical properties is done for ethanol based diesel fuels with and without flash point improvement. Second, blends are tested on a passenger car diesel engine, under a wide operating range conditions from low load low speed up to maximum power. The main advantage of the ethanol based fuels generate low smoke level, that allows using higher EGR rate, thus leading to an important NOx decrease.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel - Potential in HCCI Mode

2008-10-06
2008-01-2506
This work studies the potential of ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel fuel blends in both conventional Diesel and HCCI combustion modes. First, ethanol based fuels were tested on a modern commercial multi-cylinder DI diesel engine. The aim of this phase was to assess how such fuels affect Diesel engine performances and emissions. These results indicate that low levels of PM and NOx emissions, with a contained fuel consumption penalty and with an acceptable noise level, are achievable when the Diesel-ethanol blends are used in combination with an optimized combustion control. Moreover, experiments with ethanol based blends were performed using a single cylinder engine, running under both early injection HCCI and Diesel combustion modes. Compared to a conventional fuel, these blends allow increasing the HCCI operating range and also lead to higher maximum power output in conventional Diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Tool for Vehicle Emissions, Consumption and Performance Analysis - Applications to DPF Modeling and DID Turbocharged Engine Control Design

2006-09-14
2006-01-3004
Facing the stringent constraints on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, the automotive manufacturers have to produce vehicles with an increasing number of complex systems working together. Numerical simulation for the system design, set-up and control strategies, helps to reduce the development cycle and the global cost. Existing simulation tools usually do not address, with a high level of details, the various physical domains involved in a vehicle powertrain. To overcome this challenge, IFP and IMAGINE, settled a partnership to develop detailed simulation tools dedicated to performance, consumption and emissions for conventional and hybrid vehicles [1]. These tools are integrated in a multi-domain simulation platform (AMESim®) where several levels of detail can be easily reached for each sub-element.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Turbocharged SI Engine with Variable Camshaft Timing for Engine Control Purposes

2006-10-16
2006-01-3264
In the whole engine development process, 0D/1D simulation has become a powerful tool, from conception to final calibration. Within the context of control strategy design, a turbocharged spark ignition (SI) engine with variable camshaft timing has been modelled on the AMESim platform. This paper presents the different models and the methodology used to design, calibrate and validate the simulator. The validated engine model is then used for engine control purposes related to downsizing concept. Indeed, the presented control strategy acts on the in-cylinder trapped mass, the in-cylinder burnt gas fraction and the air scavenging from the intake to the exhaust. Consequently, it permits to reduce not only the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions but also to improve the transient response of the turbocharger
Technical Paper

Innovative Ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion Process for Gasoline Engines: the 4-SPACE Project

2000-06-19
2000-01-1837
The purpose of the 4-SPACE (4-Stroke Powered gasoline Auto-ignition Controlled combustion Engine) industrial research project is to research and develop an innovative controlled auto-ignition combustion process for lean burn automotive gasoline 4-stroke engines application. The engine concepts to be developed could have the potential to replace the existing stoichiometric / 3-way catalyst automotive spark ignition 4-stroke engines by offering the potential to meet the most stringent EURO 4 emissions limits in the year 2005 without requiring DeNOx catalyst technology. A reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of corresponding CO2 emissions of 15 to 20% in average urban conditions of use, is expected for the « 4-SPACE » lean burn 4-stroke engine with additional reduction of CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Performances and Durability of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Tested on a Fleet of Peugeot 607 Taxis: Final results

2004-03-08
2004-01-0073
In order to asses the durability of DPF, a study has been performed in order to study the evolution of several taxis (Peugeot 607) and the performance of this after-treatment systems over 80,000 km mileage in hard urban driving conditions, which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance (this periodicity is applied on the first generation of DPF technology launched in 2000). More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20 000 km): Regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle (New European Driving Cycle) Particulate emissions, by mass measurement on NEDC but also by particle number and size measurement with SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) technique on NEDC and on unconventional steady-state running points.
Technical Paper

Performances and Durability of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Tested on a Fleet of Peugeot 607 Taxis First and Second Test Phases Results

2002-10-21
2002-01-2790
The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 30% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharging…) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environmental point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulate and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterization and developments. PSA Peugeot-Citroën has recently launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles.
Journal Article

Influence of the Local Mixture Characteristics on the Combustion Process in a CAI™ Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1671
Among the existing concepts to help improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines on low load operating points, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at part load without major modifications of the engine design. The CAI™ concept is founded on the auto-ignition of a highly diluted gasoline-based mixture in order to reach high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through a low temperature combustion. Previous research works have demonstrated that the valve strategy is an efficient way to control the CAI™ combustion mode. Not only the valve strategy has an impact on the amount of trapped burnt gases and their temperature, but also different valve strategies can lead to equivalent mean in-cylinder conditions but clearly differentiated combustion timing or location. This is thought to be the consequence of local mixture variations acting in turn on the chemical kinetics.
Journal Article

Reduction of the Compression Ratio on a HSDI Diesel Engine: Combustion Design Evolution for Compliance the Future Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0839
Environment protection issues regarding CO2 emissions as well as customers requirements for fun-to-drive and fuel economy explain the strong increase of Diesel engine on European market share in all passenger car segments. To comply future purposes of emission regulations, particularly dramatic decrease in NOx emissions, technology need to keep upgrading; the reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (VCR) is one of the most promising research ways to allow a simultaneous increase in power at full load and NOx / PM trade-off improvement at part load. This study describes the combustion effects of the reduction of compression ratio and quantifies improvements obtained at full load and part load running conditions on a HSDI Common Rail engine out performance (power, fuel consumption, emissions and noise). Potential and limitations of a reduced compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1 are underlined.
Journal Article

Cold Start on Diesel Engine: Is Low Compression Ratio Compatible with Cold Start Requirements?

2008-04-14
2008-01-1310
Future emission standards for Diesel engine will require a drastic reduction of engine-out NOx emissions with very low level of particulate matter (PM), HC and CO, and keeping under control fuel consumption and combustion noise. One of the most promising way to reach this challenge is to reduce compression ratio (CR). A stringent limitation of reducing Diesel CR is currently cold start requirements. Indeed, reduction of ambient temperature leads to penalties in fuel vaporization and auto ignition capabilities, even more at very low temperature (-20°C and below). In this paper, we present the work operated on an HSDI Common rail Diesel 4-cyl engine in three area: engine tests till very low temperature (down to -25°C); in cylinder imaging (videoscope) and CFD code development for cold start operation. First, combustion chamber is adapted in order to reach low compression ratio (CR 13.7:1).
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Properties on the Performances and Knock Behaviour of a Downsized Turbocharged DI SI Engine - Focus on Octane Numbers and Latent Heat of Vaporization

2009-04-20
2009-01-0324
Facing the CO2 emission reduction challenge, the combination of downsizing and turbocharging appears as one of the most promising solution for the development of high efficiency gasoline engines. In this context, as knock resistance is a major issue, limiting the performances of turbocharged downsized gasoline engines, fuel properties are more than ever key parameters to achieve high performances and low fuel consumption's levels. This paper presents a combustion study carried out into the GSM consortium of fuel quality effects on the performances of a downsized turbocharged Direct Injection SI engine. The formulation of two adapted fuel matrix has allowed to separate and evaluate the impacts of three major fuel properties: Research Octane Number (RON), Motor Octane Number (MON) and Latent Heat of Vaporization (LHV). Engine tests were performed on a single cylinder engine at steady state operating condition.
Journal Article

Influence of the Valve-lift Strategy in a CAI™ Engine using Exhaust Gas Re-Breathing - Part 2: Optical Diagnostics and 3D CFD Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-0495
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions without major modifications of the engine design. The CAI™ concept is based on the auto-ignition of a fuel mixture highly diluted with burnt gases in order to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. Large amounts of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder by re-breathing them through the exhaust ports during the intake stroke. For that, a 2-step exhaust valve-lift profile is used. The interaction between the intake and exhaust flows during the intake stroke was identified as a key parameter to control the subsequent combustion in a CAI™ port fuel injected (PFI) engine.
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2009-06-15
2009-01-1962
The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
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