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Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Combustion Model Including In-Cylinder Pollutants To Support Engine Control Optimisation Under Transient Conditions

Regulations in terms of pollutant emissions are becoming more and more constraining. The car manufacturers need to adopt a global optimisation approach of engine and exhaust after-treatment systems. An engine architecture definition coupled to an adapted control strategy seem to be an ideal way to address this issue. The problem is particularly complex, considering the trade off between the drivability which must be maintained, the reduction of the in-cylinder pollutant emissions, the reduction of the fuel consumption and the optimisation of the operating conditions to reach high conversion efficiencies via exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Sophisticated control strategies and models can only be developed with a complete understanding of the physical phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber, thanks to experimental measurements and engine system simulations.
Technical Paper

Potential of Concomitant Injection of CNG and Gasoline on a 1.6L Gasoline Direct Injection Turbocharged Engine

The use of CNG in modern spark ignition turbocharged engine offers many advantages such as high knocking resistance, low CO₂ emissions and high specific power outputs. On the other hand, compared to gasoline, the volumetric efficiency is significantly decreased when CNG is port-injected due to its low energy density. In order to address this issue, recent studies have successfully highlighted the advantages on port-injection engines of the CIGAL™ concept (Concomitant Injection of Gas And Liquid fuels) from IFP Energies Nouvelles. However, the combination of port-injection of CNG with direct injection of gasoline remains unexplored. This paper investigates this novel injection concept on the four-cylinder 1.6L turbocharged GDI engine with inlet variable valve timing resulting from the cooperation between PSA Peugeot-Citroen and the BMW Group.
Technical Paper

Exploitation of Multi-Cycle Engine LES to Introduce Physical Perturbations in 1D Engine Models for Reproducing CCV

In spark-ignition engines, Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) limit the optimization of engine operation since they induce torque variations and the occurrence of misfire and/or knock. A mean for limiting the related negative impact of CCV on fuel consumption and emissions would be control strategies able to address them. At present, engine simulation codes used for control purposes can only describe CCV linked to variations of gas exchanges in the air loop. CCV of the in-cylinder flow motion cannot be naturally captured by classical quasi-dimensional combustion chamber models. A convenient way to mimic CCV is to impose stochastic distributions of the combustion model parameters. Nevertheless, it is not always clear if these perturbations have physical bases as well as realistic ranges of variation.
Technical Paper

Innovative Approach and Tools to Design Future Two-Wheeler Powertrain

As congestion increases and commute times lengthen with the growing urbanization, many customers will look for effective mobility solutions. Two-wheeler are one of the solutions to deal with these issues, in particular if equipped with electrified powertrains for minimized local noise and air pollutant emissions. Scooters powertrain technology is predominantly based on Spark Ignition Engine (ICE) associated with a Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) and a Centrifugal Clutch. Nevertheless, even though CVT gives satisfaction in simplicity, fun to drive, cost effectiveness and vehicle dynamics, its efficiency is an undeniable drawback. Indeed, a conventional CVT is wasting more than 50% of ICE effective power in customer driving conditions. Consequently, those vehicles have high fuel consumption relative to their size, and are equipped with overpowered and heavy internal combustion engines, allowing a large area for further improvements.
Technical Paper

Modular Methodology to Optimize Innovative Drivetrains

In this paper, an integrated simulation-based methodology demonstrating feasibility and performance of several electric-hybrid concepts is developed. Several advanced tools are coupled to define the specifications of each component of the hybrid powertrain, to select the most promising hybrid architecture and finally to assess the proposed powertrain with regard to CO2 and pollutants emissions. Concurrent minimization of NOx and CO2 emissions enables to find the best compromise to fulfil Euro 6 standards while lowering fuel consumption. This stage consists in an iterative co-optimization of the power split strategies between the electric drive and the Diesel engine and of the engine settings (injection pressure, EGR rate, etc.). The methodology combines optimal control laws and optimization methodology based on global statistical models using single-cylinder design of experiments. After several iterations, this method allows to find the optimal NOx/CO2 trade-off curve.
Journal Article

Potential of Several Alternative Propulsion Systems for Light Rotorcrafts Applications

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit global warming is becoming one of the key issues of the 21st century. As a growing contributor to this phenomenon, the aeronautic transport sector has recently taken drastic measures to limit its impact on CO2 and pollutants, like the aviation industry entry in the European carbon market or the ACARE objectives. However the defined targets require major improvements in existing propulsion systems, especially on the gas generator itself. Regarding small power engines for business aviation, rotorcrafts or APU, the turboshaft is today a dominant technology, despite quite high specific fuel consumption. In this context, solutions based on Diesel Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), well known for their low specific fuel consumption, could be a relevant alternative way to meet the requirements of future legislations for low and medium power applications (under 1000kW).
Journal Article

LP EGR and IGR Compromise on a GDI Engine at Middle Load

Burned gas recirculation is emerging as a promising technology to reduce fuel consumption without compromising performance in turbocharged spark ignited engines. This recirculation can be done internally through Internal Gas Residual (IGR) using Variable Valve Timing (VVT) or externally through classical Exhaust Gas Recirculation circuit (EGR). Both have a large impact on combustion. The purpose of the paper is to give clues to get the best compromise at moderate load between these two technologies in terms of fuel consumption. This experimental work was performed on a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine, 2.0L displacement, dual independent VVT, equipped with a Low Pressure, cooled and catalyzed EGR loop (LP EGR). The load region covers 6 to 10 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP). EGR rates obtained vary between 0 and 15%. IGR variation is obtained by using the VVT in order to vary the valve overlap. IGR rates vary from 4 to 8%.