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Technical Paper

Lightweight Crankshafts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0016
The automotive industry continues to look for opportunities to reduce weight and cost while simultaneously increasing performance and durability. Since the introduction of aluminum cylinder blocks and heads, very few “innovations” have been made in powertrain design and materials. Cast crankshafts have the potential to produce significant weight savings (3-18 kg) with little or no cost penalty. With the advent of new, high strength, cast ductile iron materials, such as MADI™ (machinable austempered ductile iron), which has the highly desirable combination of good strength, good toughness, good machinability and low cost, lightweight crankshafts are posed to become a high volume production reality. An extreme demonstration of a lightweight crankshaft is the current use of a cast MADI crankshaft in the 1100 HP Darrell Cox sub-compact drag race car.
Technical Paper

Effect of Bolt CTE on Bolt Load Retention for Mg Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0071
The automobile and light truck industries are increasing considering the use of magnesium castings in structural and elevated-temperature applications. Unfortunately, the bolt load compressive stress retention behavior of magnesium alloys is unacceptable for most elevated temperature applications. In this investigation, the effects of bolt strength and the mis-match in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of magnesium alloy AZ91D and the bolt material has been determined for a wide range of materials (martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel, ductile iron and aluminum alloys). Also, the effect of heat treating the magnesium alloy, the effect of re-tightening the bolts after the first thermal cycle and the maximum load carry capacity of numerous bolt materials were determined. Corrosion was not considered.
Technical Paper

Machinability of MADI™

2005-04-11
2005-01-1684
High strength materials have desirable mechanical properties but often cannot be machined economically, which results in unacceptably high finished component cost. MADI™ (machinable austempered ductile iron) overcomes this difficultly and provides the highly desirable combination of high strength, excellent low temperature toughness, good machinability and attractive finished component cost. The Machine Tool Systems Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign performed extensive machinability testing and determined the appropriate tools, speeds and feeds for milling and drilling (https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/malkewcz/www/MADI.htm). This paper provides the information necessary for the efficient and economical machining of MADI™ and provides comparative machinability data for common grades of ductile iron (EN-GJS-400-18, 400-15, 450-10, 500-7, 600-3 & 700-2) for comparison.
Technical Paper

MADI™: Introducing a New, Machinable, Austempered Ductile Iron

2003-03-03
2003-01-0831
A unique combination of metal chemistry and heat treatment has lead to the invention of MADI (machinable austempered ductile iron). Two MADI grades have been developed: chassis grade for fatigue critical applications and crankshaft grade for high strength applications. The mechanical properties, fatigue life of components and quantitative machinability data of MADI, regular ADI and pearlitic ductile iron are presented. Since the design strength of MADI is 50-100% higher than currently used as-cast ductile irons, significantly lighter weight components can now be produced. MADI may lead the way to the increased use of low cost, ductile iron castings since, for the first time, both improved mechanical properties (fatigue resistance or high strength) and improved machinability have been obtained.
Technical Paper

Bolt Load Compressive Stress Retention Testing of Magnesium Alloys

2003-03-03
2003-01-0187
Elevated temperature bolt load compressive stress retention testing of four high temperature magnesium alloys (AJ50X, AJ52X, AS21X and AE42), two structural magnesium alloys (AM50A and AM60B), one aluminum alloy (383) and one gray iron alloy were performed at the INTERMET Technical Center over a period of about one year. Artificial aging of some of these alloys during testing was observed. The effect of a heat treatment designed to thermally stabilize the microstructure was evaluated and determined to significantly improve magnesium performance and degrade aluminum performance. This paper documents the test procedure and the test results.
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