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Technical Paper

Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainties in Turbocharger Compressor Gas Stand Measurements Using Monte Carlo Simulation

Turbocharger hot gas stand testing is routinely carried out in the industry both to provide an experimental assessment of different designs, and to confirm to automotive OEM customers that the product meets the afore-promised levels of performance and durability. The resulting characteristics, or maps, have a hugely significant role in the correct matching of turbocharger options for engine applications. However, since these are generated from experimentally-determined values of pressure, temperature and mass flow, with each sensed variable having an inherent finite error, the uncertainty in these measured components is variously propagated through to the flow and efficiency characteristics - and the significance of this is not well recognized.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Field Conditions in Diesel Fuel Injector Testing

The measurement of the rate of fuel injection using a constant volume, fluid filled chamber and measuring the pressure change as a function of time due to the injected fluid (the so called “Zeuch” method) is an industry standard due to its simple theoretical underpinnings. Such a measurement device is useful to determine key timing and quantity parameters for injection system improvements to meet the evolving requirements of emissions, power and economy. This study aims to further the understanding of the nature of cavitation which could occur in the near nozzle region under these specific conditions of liquid into liquid injection using high pressure diesel injectors for heavy duty engines. The motivation for this work is to better understand the temporal signature of the pressure signals that arise in a typical injection cycle.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Experimental Efficiency Characterization of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger

Electrically assisted turbochargers consist of standard turbochargers modified to accommodate an electric motor/generator within the bearing housing. Those devices improve engine transient response and low end torque by increasing the power delivered to the compressor. This allows a larger degree of engine down-sizing and down-speeding as well as a more efficient turbocharger to engine match, which translates in lower fuel consumption. In addition, the electric machine can be operated in generating mode during steady state engine running conditions to extract a larger fraction of the exhaust energy. Electric turbocharger assistance is therefore a key technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper an electrically assisted turbocharger, designed to be applied to non-road medium duty diesel engines, is tested to obtain the turbine and electrical machine efficiency characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Flow and Loading Coefficient-Based Compressor Map Interpolation Technique for Improved Accuracy of Turbocharged Engine Simulations

Internal combustion engines are routinely developed using 1D engine simulation tools. A well-known limitation is the accuracy of the turbocharger compressor and turbine sub-models, which rely on hot gas bench-measured maps to characterize performance. Such discrete map data is inherently too sparse to be used directly in simulation, and so a preprocessing algorithm interpolates and extrapolates the data to generate a wider, more densely populated map. Methods used for compressor map interpolation vary. They may be mathematical or physical in nature, but there is no unified approach, except that they typically operate on input map data in SAE format. For decades it has been common practice for turbocharger suppliers to share performance data with engine OEMs in this form. This paper describes a compressor map interpolation technique based on the nondimensional compressor flow and loading coefficients, instead of SAE-format data.
Technical Paper

Improving Energy Extraction from Pulsating Exhaust Flow by Active Operation of a Turbocharger Turbine

A mixed flow turbine with pivoting nozzle vanes was designed and tested to actively adapt to the pulsating exhaust flow. The turbine was tested at equivalent speed of 48000 rpm with inlet flow pulsation of 40Hz and 60Hz, which corresponds to a 4-stroke diesel engine speed of 1600 rpm and 2400 rpm respectively. The nozzle vane operating schedules for each pulse period are evaluated experimentally in two general modes; natural opening and closing of the vanes due to the pulsating flow and the forced sinusoidal oscillation of the vanes to match the incoming pulsating flow. The turbine energy extraction as well as efficiency is compared for the two modes to formulate its effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Internal Flow Field of a Model Gasoline Injector Using Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry

The spray characteristics of a gasoline injector depend not only on the physics of atomization of the liquid jet on exit from the nozzle plate but also on the level of turbulence generated by the internal flow, upstream of the nozzle plate, as well as on whether cavitation arises. Measurement of the internal flow field of an injector can thus provide useful information and can assist the evaluation of the accuracy of computer predictions of the flow and associated cavitation. Information about the flow field upstream of nozzle exits is, however, rare and this forms the background to this work. Two-Dimensional Micro Particle Imaging Velocimetry (μPIV) was employed to measure the internal flow field in planes parallel to a plane of symmetry of the injector, downstream of the needle valve centring boss of a 10:1 super-scale transparent model of an 8-nozzle gasoline injector, with exit model-nozzle diameters of 2mm and a fixed model-needle lift of 0.8mm.
Technical Paper

Effects of Valve Deactivation on Thermal Efficiency in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Dilute Conditions

Reported in the current paper is a study into the cycle efficiency effects of utilising a complex valvetrain mechanism in order to generate variable in-cylinder charge motion and therefore alter the dilution tolerance of a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. A Jaguar Land Rover Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) was operated at a number of engine speeds and loads with the dilution fraction varied accordingly (excess air (lean), external Exhaust Gas Residuals (EGR) or some combination of both). For each engine speed, load and dilution fraction, the engine was operated with either both intake valves fully open - Dual Valve Actuation (DVA) - or one valve completely closed - Single Valve Actuation (SVA) mode. The engine was operated in DVA and SVA modes with EGR fractions up to 20% with the excess air dilution (Lambda) increased (to approximately 1.8) until combustion stability was duly compromised.
Journal Article

An Investigation of Deformation Effects on Phase Transformation in Hot Stamping Processes

To reduce the fuel consumption as well as to improve the crash safety of vehicles, the usage of hot stamping parts is increasing dramatically in recent years. Aisin Takaoka has produced hot stamping parts since 2001 and has developed various technologies related to Hot Stamping. In an actual hot stamping process, parts with insufficient strength could be produced sometimes at a prototyping phase, even under the proper forming conditions. In order to understand these phenomena, in this paper, phase transformation in a boron steel 22MnB5 under various cooling rates were investigated and the effects of pre-strain conditions on the phase transformations were characterised. Uniaxial tensile specimens were stretched under isothermal conditions to different strain levels of 0-0.3, at strain rates of 0.1-5.0/s and deformation temperatures of 650-800°C.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Influence of Different Asperity Contact Models on the Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of a Conrod Small-End/Piston Pin Coupling

Bearings represent one of the main causes of friction losses in internal combustion engines, and their lubrication performance has a crucial influence on the operating condition of the engine. In particular, the conrod small-end bearing is one of the most critical engine parts from a tribological point of view since limited contact surfaces have to support high inertial and combustion forces. In this contribution an analysis is performed of the tribological behavior of the lubricated contact between the piston pin and the conrod small-end of a high performance motorbike engine. A mass-conserving algorithm is employed to solve the Reynolds equation based on a complementarity formulation of the cavitation problem. The analysis of the asperity contact problem is addressed in detail. A comparison between two different approaches is presented, the former based on the standard Greenwood/Tripp theory and the latter based on a complementarity formulation of the asperity contact problem.
Technical Paper

Steady-state, transient and WLTC drive-cycle on-engine performance comparison between single-scroll and twin-scroll turbocharger turbine

The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbine in automotive powertrain has been known for providing better transient performance over conventional single-scroll turbine. This has been accredited to the preservation of exhaust flow energy in the twin-scroll volute. In the current study, the performance comparison between a single and twin-scroll turbine has been made experimentally on a 1.5L passenger car gasoline engine. The uniqueness of the current study is that nearly identical engine hardware has been used for both the single and twin-scroll turbine volutes. This includes the intake and exhaust manifold geometry, turbocharger compressor, turbine rotor and volute scroll A/R variation trend over the azimuth angle. On top of that, the steady-state engine performance with both the volutes, has also been tuned to have matching brake torque.