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Keynote Presentation: Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record

2012-05-16
Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will focus on what a small team of ambitious and talented engineers can do when they have a dream! Back in 2009, a team of graduates from Imperial College London came together to do something radical to change the public perception of electric vehicles forever. They came up with the idea to design and build the world's longest range electric car, and then drive it down the longest and toughest road in the world; the 26,000km Pan-American Highway! Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will share the story from start to finish, and will also focus on the technology used to achieve such a feat, with particular mention of the electric motors. Presenter Alexander Schey, Imperial College London
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and Temperature on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1996-02-01
960862
The air entrainment in a transient diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry to provide information on the effect of gas density and temperature. The spray was injected vertically into a confined quiescent atmosphere and the entrained mass flow rate was evaluated by measuring the air velocity component normal to a cylindrical geometric surface surrounding the spray, and extending to about 200 nozzle diameters (50 mm). The experimental results, relative to a density range from 0.84 to 7.02 kg/m3 and a temperature range from 293 to 473 K, indicate that the non dimensional entrainment rate, averaged in time over the main injection period, depends on the distance from the nozzle and both gas density and temperature. A first analysis, based on the available data, allowed to quantify the dependence and provided a correlation with such variables.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Tests of Racing Seats and Simulation with Vedyac Code

1998-11-16
983059
Dynamic tests have been performed on carbon fiber racing seats following the FIA regulations. The tests have shown, in rear impact tests, a relatively strong rebound leading to large forward bending of neck, and, in side impact tests, very large lateral displacement of the head, the latter protruding dangerously towards hard portions of the car structure. Stiffening the seat back by steel struts results in reducing strongly both the motion and the acceleration of the head. Simulations of the dynamics of the tests have been done with multi-body models, including the Hybrid III dummy and seat deflection, by means of the program VEDYAC. It has been found that computer simulation can predict very accurately the result of a test, provided the numerical models have been carefully calibrated to match the dummy tolerance bands. Once they have been calibrated and validated with a number of tests, the computer models can be very useful to extend the test results to different test conditions.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Viscosity of Thin Films of Lubricants on Solid Surfaces

1991-10-01
912412
This paper describes the development of a thin film rheometer able to measure the viscosity of lubricant films of the order of 200 μm thickness on flat, solid surfaces. The rheometer consists of a small cylinder mounted on a piezo bimorph which is divided electrically into two halves. When an AC voltage is applied to the one half of the piezo it causes the flat surface of the cylinder to oscillate in its own plane with an amplitude of a few microns. This motion produces an AC output from the other half of the piezo. The flat face of the cylinder is held parallel to an oily test surface and the latter is supported on a micrometer stage so that the gap between the two surfaces can be adjusted. As the gap is narrowed the oil film dampens the sinusoidal motion of the cylinder and the extent of this damping can be used to determine the viscosity of the oil film between the surfaces.
Technical Paper

Considerations in Designing a Recovery Steam Generator for Incineration Plants

1992-08-03
929266
The design of recovery steam generators for incineration plants encounters certain specific problems, related to the nature of the exhausted gases, which, if not properly faced, can strongly condition the conduction of the whole system. Two problems, namely, demand for particular attention: the corrosion at high temperature and the formation of organochlorine compounds, in presence of ashes and/or deposits for definite temperature intervals. These phenomena can be controlled and minimized, whenever possible, by limiting to the greatest extent the regions where the temperatures of the metallic walls and of the ashes and/or deposits are within the critical interval.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930920
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Solar Prototype for Shell-Eco Marathon Race

2017-03-28
2017-01-1260
Apollo is the name of a solar prototype vehicle of Politecnico di Milano (Technical University of Milan) that has been conceived and employed for the Shell Eco-marathon® Europe competition (SEM). The paper introduces the concept design, the detailed design, the construction, the indoor tests, the successful employment at SEM and the end-of-life of the prototype. Apollo is a three-wheeler with a single driving and steering wheel at the rear. A wing with solar cells provides part of the electric energy required for running. The conceptual design started from the accommodation of the driver inside the vehicle. A number of iterations focusing on CFD (computation fluid dynamics) and wind-tunnel tests allowed to refine the total drag to less than 2N at 35 km/h. The tyre characteristic was measured on a drum. The camber of front wheels was set to 4 deg which provided the least rolling resistance.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the Ride Comfort of Alfa Romeo Cars since 1955 until 2005

2017-03-28
2017-01-1484
The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Between Engine Stop/Start and Cylinder Deactivation Technologies Under Southeast Asia Urban Driving Condition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0986
Engine stop/start and cylinder deactivation are increasingly in use to improve fuel consumption of internal combustion engine in passenger cars. The stop/start technology switches off the engine to whenever the vehicle is at a stand-still, typically in a highly-congested area of an urban driving. The inherent issue with the implementation of stop/start technology in Southeast Asia, with tropical climate such as Malaysia, is the constant demand for the air-conditioning system. This inevitably reduces the duration of engine switch-off when the vehicle at stop and consequently nullifying the benefit of the stop/start system. On the other hand, cylinder deactivation technology improves the fuel consumption at certain conditions during low to medium vehicle speeds, when the engine is at part load operation only. This study evaluates the fuel economy benefit between the stop/start and cylinder deactivation technologies for the actual Kuala Lumpur urban driving conditions in Malaysia.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1002
The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Technical Paper

Nonlinearities in Friction Brake NVH - Experimental and Numerical Studies

2014-09-28
2014-01-2511
Industry and academia agree that brake squeal is a nonlinear phenomenon. Consequently, using solely linear finite-element (FE) models and assessing the tendency of a brake system to squeal exclusively on the stability of the trivial solution is not appropriate. However, the latter approach - in the brake community known as complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) - is extensively used in industry. Until now, nonlinear simulation approaches considering existence and stability of periodic solutions are mostly limited to minimal models. Among the variety of reasons for this the complexity of large-scale nonlinear models as well as the identification of nonlinear material and system parameters are crucial. This contribution discusses the relevance of nonlinearities in friction brake noise, vibration, harshness (NVH) and presents a novel simulation approach for brake squeal.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Experimental and Meanline Study of an Asymmetric Twin-Scroll Turbine at Full and Unequal and Partial Admission Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0971
The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbines has gained popularity in recent years. The main reason is its capability of isolating and preserving pulsating exhaust flow from engine cylinders of adjacent firing order, hence enabling more efficient pulse turbocharging. Asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines have been used to realize high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) using only one scroll while designing the other scroll for optimal scavenging. This research is based on a production asymmetrical turbocharger turbine designed for a heavy duty truck engine of Daimler AG. Even though there are number of studies on symmetrical twin entry scroll performance, a comprehensive modeling tool for asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines is yet to be found. This is particularly true for a meanline model, which is often used during the turbine preliminary design stage.
Technical Paper

Suspension Systems: Some New Analytical Formulas for Describing the Dynamic Behavior

2018-04-03
2018-01-0554
The paper presents some new and unreferenced analytical formulae describing the dynamic behaviour of the suspension system of road or off-road vehicles. The quarter car model (2 degrees of freedom) is considered, the suspension can be either passive or active. Passive suspensions can be simplified as the spring-damper combination or the spring-damper combination with an additional in series spring (representing, e.g., the rubber bushing at the top of a McPherson strut or the rubber bushing at the end joints of the damper). The mathematical system is linear and the excitation is given by a random stationary and ergodic process. The standard deviations in analytical form are given referring to, respectively, the vehicle body acceleration, the relative displacement between sprung and unsprung mass, and the force at the ground. The so called invariant points of the frequency response functions are derived for both active and passive suspension.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1689
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

Engine Operational Benefits with Cylinder Deactivation in Malaysian Urban Driving Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-0983
Cylinder deactivation has been utilized by vehicle manufacturers since the 80's to improve fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Cylinder deactivation is achieved by cutting off fuel supply and ignition in some of the engine cylinders, while their inlet and outlet valves are fully closed. The vehicle demand during cylinder deactivation is sustained by only the firing cylinders, hence increasing their indicated power. Conventionally, half the number of cylinders are shut at certain driving conditions, which normally at the lower demand regime. An optimal strategy will ensure cylinder deactivation contributes to the fuel saving without compromising the vehicle drivability. Cylinder deactivation has been documented to generally improve fuel consumption between 6 to 25 %, depending on the type-approval test drive cycle. However, type-approval test has been reported to differ from the “real-world” fuel consumption values.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure Wave Reflection from Open-Ends in I.C.E. Duct Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1051
In the most elementary treatment of plane-wave reflection at the open end of a duct system, it is often assumed that the ends are pressure nodes. This implies that pressure is assumed as a constant at the open end termination and that steady flow boundary condition is supposed as instantaneously established. While this simplifying assumption seems reasonable, it does not consider any radiation of acoustic energy from the duct into the surrounding free space; hence, an error in the estimation of the effects of the flow on the acoustical response of an open-end duct occurs. If radiation is accounted, a complicated three-dimensional wave pattern near the duct end is established, which tends to readjust the exit pressure to its steady-flow level. This adjustment process is continually modified by further incident waves, so that the effective instantaneous boundary conditions which determine the reflected waves depend on the flow history.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Cyber Tyre: A Novel Sensor to Improve Vehicle's Safety

2011-04-12
2011-01-0990
Tires will be protagonists in the new European regulations for safety and fuel economy: in 2012 a tire pressure monitoring system will be mandatory for all new vehicles, enabling as natural consequence the development of the so called “intelligent tire”, able to capture all the relevant information of the contact between the road surface and the rubber, a starting point for new functions development to improve safety and reduce fuel consumption of all vehicles. A description of the methodologies that can be used to extract features from the tires, based on the experience of the development of Cyber Tyre, a high performance sensorized tire, is included in this work; comparison with the same information gained thorough ordinary sensors are provided too. The paper also presents some interesting examples of how data, coming from Cyber Tyres, can be exploited to improve the safety margins of a vehicle, preventing the critical operating condition represented by hydroplaning.
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