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Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Modeling for Two-Stroke SI Engine

1994-03-01
940403
Hydrocarbon emissions due to short-circuiting of the fresh charge during scavenging process is a major source of pollution from the two-stroke spark ignition engines. This work presents a prediction scheme for analysis of hydrocarbon emission based on the material balance considerations. A generalized form of globular combustion equation has been used for general applicability of the scheme to any fuel or fuel blends. The influence of mixture quality, scavenging characteristics, residual contents and the delivery ratio are predicted. A good qualitative prediction has been established at all delivery ratios. The predictions are found quantitatively satisfactory in the higher delivery ratio range where the short-circuiting phase of the scavenging process is dominant.
Technical Paper

Spark-Assisted Alcohol Operation in a Low Heat Rejection Engine

1995-02-01
950059
This work demonstrates how the performance of a standard spark-assisted alcohol engine can be improved by using the Low Heat Rejection (LHR ) concept. The improved combustion is attained by better using the greater heat energy in the combustion chamber of a LHR engine - in this case for the faster vaporisation and better mixing of the alcohol fuels. For this program the LHR engine used has a single cylinder diesel and alcohols sued as sole fuels were ethanol and methanol. For spark assistance an extended electrode spark plug was used and location and projection were optimised for best results. These configurations were evaluated for performance and emissions with and without LHR implementation. The results show that the engine with LHR, ethanol fuel and spark assistance has the highest brake thermal efficiency with the lowest emissions.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in SI Engine Exhaust Using Selective Catalytic Reduction Technique

1998-02-23
980935
Copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite with urea infusion was tested for nitrogen oxide (NOx)conversion efficiency in this study. Temperature datapoints were obtained to arrive at peak activation temperatures. Variation of the air/fuel ratio showed the widening of the λ-window(the range of air-fuel ratios over which the NOx conversion efficiency is considerable); a maximum of 62% NOx conversion efficiency was obtained in the lean-burn range. Effects of space velocity variations were also observed. In order to minimise the deactivation of zeolite caused by water, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulphate were deposited on the copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite and the corresponding NOx conversion efficiencies measured. Ammonia slip (leakage of unreacted ammonia), a prospective pollution hazard, was observed to be more in case of urea infusion than ammonium salt deposition at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

Performance of Thin-Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chamber with Gasoline and Methanol as Fuels in a Two-Stroke SI Engine

1994-10-01
941911
The performance of a conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine can be improved by providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber. This will help to improve the vaporization characteristics in particular at part load and medium loads with gasoline fuel and high-latent-heat fuels such as methanol. In the present investigation, the combustion chamber surface was coated with a 0.5-mm thickness of partially stabilized zirconia, and experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, two-stroke SI engine with gasoline and methanol as fuels. Test results indicate that with gasoline as a fuel, the thin ceramic-coated combustion chamber improves the part load to medium load operation considerably, but it affects the performance at higher speeds and at higher loads to the extent of knock and loss of brake power by about 18%. However, with methanol as a fuel, the performance is better under most of the operating range and free from knock.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High-Octane Fuel Blends on the Performance of a Two-Stroke SI Engine with Knock-Limited-Compression Ratio

1994-10-01
941863
The use of alcohol-gasoline blends enables the favorable features of alcohols to be utilized in spark ignition (SI) engines while avoiding the shortcomings of their application as straight fuels. Eucalyptus and orange oils possess high octane values and are also good potential alternative fuels for SI engines. The high octane value of these fuels can enhance the octane value of the fuel when it is blended with low-octane gasoline. In the present work, 20 percent by volume of orange oil, eucalyptus oil, methanol and ethanol were blended separately with gasoline, and the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were evaluated at two different compression ratios. The phase separation problems arising from the alcohol-gasoline blends were minimized by adding eucalyptus oil as a co-solvent. Test results indicate that the compression ratio can be raised from 7.4 to 9 without any detrimental effect, due to the higher octane rating of the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Development and Performance Studies on Ion-Exchanged X-Zeolites as Catalysts for SI Engine Emission Control

1997-05-01
971652
Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging its Na+ ion with Copper, Nickel and Vanadium metal ions and tested in a stationary SI engine exhaust to observe their potentialities for NOx and CO controlling. The catalyst Cu-X, in comparison to Ni-X and V-X, exhibits much better NOx and CO reduction performance at any temperature. Maximum NOx conversion efficiencies achieved with Cu-X, Ni-X and V-X are 62.2%, 59.7% and 56.1% respectively. Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts, studied here, maintain their peak NOx reduction performance through a wider range of A/F ratio. Back pressure developed across the catalyst bed is found to be well within the acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0880
Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Mahua based Biodiesel as Supplementary Diesel Fuel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0479
Biodiesel developed from non- edible seeds grown in the wasteland in India can be very effectively utilized in the existing diesel engines used for various applications. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. These properties were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and Indian standards. The performance of mahua biodiesel (MOME) and its blend with diesel in a Kirloskar DAF8 engine has been observed. The addition of MOME to diesel fuel has significantly reduced CO, UBHC and smoke emissions but increases the NOx emission slightly. The reductions in exhaust emissions could help in controlling air pollution. The results show that no significant power reduction in the engine operation when operated with blends of MOME and diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Tomographic PIV Evaluation of In-Cylinder Flow Evolution and Effect of Engine Speed

2016-04-05
2016-01-0638
In this study, 3D air-flow-field evolution in a single cylinder optical research engine was determined using tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (TPIV) at different engine speeds. Two directional projections of captured flow-field were pre-processed to reconstruct the 3D flow-field by using the MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Ensemble average flow pattern was used to investigate the air-flow behavior inside the combustion chamber during the intake and compression strokes of an engine cycle. In-cylinder air-flow characteristics were significantly affected by the engine speed. Experimental results showed that high velocities generated during the first half of the intake stroke dissipated in later stages of the intake stroke. In-cylinder flow visualization indicated that large part of flow energy dissipated during the intake stroke and energy dissipation was the maximum near the end of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Reducing NO in a Biodiesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

2015-09-06
2015-24-2483
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study on Automotive Pleated Air Filters

2016-02-01
2016-28-0100
Nowadays, the automotive engines are downsizing, thus offering limited space for engine intake air filter media. This results in higher aerosol velocity through the filter media. At a higher velocity, the aerosol particles reenter into the fluid stream and thereafter penetrate through the filter media. This causes significant reduction in filtration efficiency. Here, an attempt is made to understand the particle penetration behavior of automotive engine intake air filter media. To establish the flow field, numerical simulations are carried out on a panel type pleated air filter with pleat height 26 mm, pleat pitch 4.5 mm and pleat angle 2.50 degree. A series of tests are conducted using ISO 12103 A2 fine dust on a flat cellulosic paper filter media at a range of velocities derived numerically. The methodology followed for modeling the fibrous media using finite volume commercial CFD code for analyzing the flow field is presented.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air-Flow Characteristics Using Tomographic PIV at Different Engine Speeds, Intake Air Temperatures and Intake Valve Deactivation in a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0001
Fuel-air mixing is the main parameter, which affects formation of NOx and PM during CI combustion. Hence better understanding of air-flow characteristics inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine became very important. In this study, in-cylinder air-flow characteristics of four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). For visualization of air-flow pattern, fine graphite particles were used for flow seeding. To investigate the effect of different operating parameters, experiments were performed at different engine speeds (1200 rpm and 1500 rpm), intake air temperatures (room temperature and 50°C) and intake port configurations (swirl port, tangential port and combined port). Intake air temperature was controlled by a closed loop temperature controller and intake ports were deactivated by using a customized aluminum gasket.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Microscopic Spray Characteristics of a GDI Injector Using Phase Doppler Interferometry

2016-02-01
2016-28-0006
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is known for its higher power and higher thermal efficiency. Researchers are steadily determining and resolving the problems of fuel injection in a GDI engine. In order to meet the stringent emission norms such as PM and NOx emitted by a GDI engine, it is necessary to investigate the microscopic spray characteristics and fuel-air mixing process. This paper aims to share the fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms at the wide range of fuel injection pressures. The investigations were carried out at five different fuel injection pressures viz: 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 bar, for 24 mg fuel per injection. A high speed CCD camera was used to determine the macroscopic spray characteristics of the GDI injector. It was found that spray penetration length increased with increasing fuel injection pressure. Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) was used to determine the droplet size and droplet velocity for different test fuels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Lanthanum Based Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Emission Reduction with and without Ceria Support

2016-02-01
2016-28-0023
Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
Technical Paper

Use of Water-Butanol Blends in a Turbocharged Common Rail Dual Fuel Engine for Enhanced Performance and Reduce Smoke Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0251
Experiments were conducted on a turbocharged three cylinder automotive common rail diesel engine with port injection of butanol. This dual fuel engine was run with neat butanol and blends of water and butanol (up to 20% water by mass). Experiments were performed at a constant speed of 1800 rpm and a brake mean effective pressure of 11.8 bar (full load) at varying butanol to diesel energy share values while diesel was either injected as a single pulse or as twin pulses (Main plus Post). Open engine controllers were used for varying the injection parameters of diesel and butanol. Water butanol blends improved the brake thermal efficiency by a small extent because of better combustion phasing as compared to butanol without water. When the butanol to diesel energy share was high, auto-ignition of butanol occurred before the injection of diesel. This lowered the ignition delay of diesel and hence elevated the smoke level.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injector Location and Nozzle-Hole Orientation on Mixture Formation in a GDI Engine: A CFD Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0201
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions compared to that of the conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engine. But, in these engines, the mixture formation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. The mixture formation, in turn, depends on many factors of which fuel injector location and orientation are most important parameters. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of fuel injector location and nozzle-hole orientation on the mixture formation, performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine. The mixture stratification inside the combustion chamber is characterized by a parameter called “stratification index” which is based on average equivalence ratio at different zones in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Parameters on Performance and Emission Characteristics in HCCI Engine - A CFD Study

2017-11-05
2017-32-0096
Today, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are becoming very popular because of their potential to reduce soot and nitric oxides (NOx) emissions simultaneously. But, their performance and emission characteristics are very much dependent upon fuel injection strategy and parameters. However, they also have many challenges viz., improper combustion phasing, high rate of pressure rise and narrow operating range. Therefore, addressing them is very essential before making them a commercial success. This study focuses on evaluating the effect of fuel injection strategy and parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In this study, a four-stroke engine operating in the HCCI mode is considered and the CFD analysis is carried out by using the CONVERGE.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Conventional and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Modes in a Small Single Cylinder Air-Cooled Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2365
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve higher thermal efficiencies along with ultra low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions. Small single cylinder diesel engines of air-cooled type are finding increasing applications in the agriculture pump-set and small utility power generation owing to their lower cost and fuel economy advantages. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under RCCI combustion mode with a newly designed cylinder head to accommodate a high pressure, fully flexible electronically controlled direct diesel fuel injection system, a low pressure gasoline port fuel injection system and an intake air pre heater.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Low Temperature Combustion Strategies in a Small Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Low Load Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2363
Advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) modes are most promising to reduce green house gas emissions owing to fuel economy benefits apart from simultaneously reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. Various LTC strategies have been proposed so far and each of these LTC strategies have their own advantages and limitations interms of precise ignition control, achievable load range and higher unburned emissions. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under different LTC strategies including Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI).
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Producer Gas Engine and Dedicated Compressed Natural Gas Engine - Technology Development and Experimental Performance Optimisation

1999-10-25
1999-01-3515
In the present study, a 17 kW, stationary, direct- injection diesel engine has been converted to operate it as a gas engine using producer-gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) as the fuels on two different operational modes called SIPGE (Spark Ignition Producer Gas Engine) and DCNGE (Dedicated Compressed Natural Gas Engine). The engine before conversion, was run on two other modes of operation, namely, diesel mode using only diesel and producer-gas-diesel-dual-fuel mode with diesel used for pilot ignition. The base data generated on diesel mode was used for performance comparison under other modes to ascertain the fuel flexibility. A technology development and optimisation followed by performance confirmation are the three features of this study. The exercise of conversion to SIPGE is a success since comparable power and efficiency could be developed. DCNGE operation also yielded comparable power with higher efficiency, which establishes the fuel flexibility of the converted machine.
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