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Technical Paper

Computer Simulation Studies of an Alcohol Fueled Low Heat Rejection Direct Injection Diesel Engine

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation model for a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine for neat diesel operation, ethanol-diesel dual fuel operation in fumigation and dual injection mode, operating on conventional or low heat rejection version. The model which illustrates the simulation of the overall cycle consisting of compression, combustion, expansion, exhaust and intake processes also predicts the nitric oxide and soot emissions. In addition it also predicts the brake power, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, maximum gas pressure and maximum gas temperature. The above model was validated using available experimental results. Subsequently the computer program was run for different operating conditions encompassing broad changes in several engine operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Mahua based Biodiesel as Supplementary Diesel Fuel

Biodiesel developed from non- edible seeds grown in the wasteland in India can be very effectively utilized in the existing diesel engines used for various applications. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. These properties were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and Indian standards. The performance of mahua biodiesel (MOME) and its blend with diesel in a Kirloskar DAF8 engine has been observed. The addition of MOME to diesel fuel has significantly reduced CO, UBHC and smoke emissions but increases the NOx emission slightly. The reductions in exhaust emissions could help in controlling air pollution. The results show that no significant power reduction in the engine operation when operated with blends of MOME and diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Noise, Vibrations and Combustion Investigations of Preheated Jatropha Oil in a Single Cylinder Genset Engine

High viscosity of vegetable oil causes ignition problems when used in compression ignition engines. There is a need to reduce the viscosity before using it as engine fuel. Preheating and pre-treating of vegetable oils using waste heat of exhaust gases is one of the techniques, which reduces the viscosity and makes it possible to use it as alternate fuel for some niche applications, without requiring major modifications in the engine hardware. Several applications such as decentralized power generation, agricultural engines, and water pumping engines, can use vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. In present investigation, performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine using preheated 20% blend of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel (J20) has been evaluated at a constant speed (1500 rpm) in a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injector Location and Nozzle-Hole Orientation on Mixture Formation in a GDI Engine: A CFD Analysis

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions compared to that of the conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engine. But, in these engines, the mixture formation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. The mixture formation, in turn, depends on many factors of which fuel injector location and orientation are most important parameters. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of fuel injector location and nozzle-hole orientation on the mixture formation, performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine. The mixture stratification inside the combustion chamber is characterized by a parameter called “stratification index” which is based on average equivalence ratio at different zones in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Composition Based Approach for Predicting Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuelled Engine

Biodiesel is a renewable, carbon neutral alternative fuel to diesel for compression ignition engine applications. Biodiesel could be produced from a large variety of feedstocks including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their composition, fuel properties and thereby, engine characteristics. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations on engine characteristics are captured using a multi-linear regression model incorporated with two new biodiesel composition based parameters, viz. straight chain saturation factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm). For this purpose, biodiesel produced from seven vegetable oils having significantly different compositions are tested in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads and injection timings. The regression model is formulated using 35 measured data points and is validated with 15 other data points which are not used for formulation.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of Air Assisted Fuel Injection

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. GDI systems use high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection durations and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on the Idling Performance of a Three Cylinder Passenger Car Engine Fitted with a Carburettor and a Single Point Electronic Gasoline Fuel Injection System

Experimental investigations relating to the performance and emission characteristics under idling conditions of a three cylinder passenger car spark ignition engine operating on a conventional carburettor and a developed single point gasoline fuel injection system are described in this paper. The idling performance at different engine speeds was studied by carrying out comprehensive engine testing on a test bed in two phases. In the first phase, experiments were conducted on an engine fitted with a conventional carburettor whilst they were extended to the engine provided with a developed electronic single point fuel injection (SPI) system, whose fuel spray was directed against the direction of air flow. The injection timing of the SPI system was varied from 82 deg. before inlet valve opening (or 98 deg. before top dead center) to 42 deg. after inlet valve opening (or 26 deg. after top dead center).