Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Hybrid Cars Setting New Challenges for Optimized Power Semiconductors

2014-04-01
2014-01-0242
The electrification of the powertrain is still one of the main challenges and innovation drivers for modern cars. With the introduction of the Toyota Prius, launched in Japan in 1997 the first commercially available hybrid car in mass production, the development continued towards the BMW i3 launched in July 2013. One main component for all kind of hybrid cars is still the power semiconductor, which is used for DC/DC converters and for the inverter to drive the electric motor for the traction control. What makes the selection of the right power semiconductor complex, is the variety of different voltage levels within the car (from standard 12V board net, the new 48V board net all the way up to 400V and above) plus different requirements in terms of switching and conduction performance, or accordingly power losses. The selection of device by application and voltage will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Safety Element out of Context - A Practical Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0033
ISO 26262 is the actual standard for Functional Safety of automotive E/E (Electric/Electronic) systems. One of the challenges in the application of the standard is the distribution of safety related activities among the participants in the supply chain. In this paper, the concept of a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) development will be analyzed showing its current problematic aspects and difficulties in implementing such an approach in a concrete typical automotive development flow with different participants (e.g. from OEM, tier 1 to semiconductor supplier) in the supply chain. The discussed aspects focus on the functional safety requirements of generic hardware and software development across the supply chain where the final integration of the developed element is not known at design time and therefore an assumption based mechanism shall be used.
Technical Paper

Automotive ADAS Camera System Configuration Using Multi-Core Microcontroller

2015-03-10
2015-01-0023
It has become an important trend to implement safety-related requirements in the road vehicles. Recent studies have shown that accidents, which occurred when drivers are not focused due to fatigue or distractions, can be predicted in advance when using safety features. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are used to prevent this kind of situation. Currently, many major tiers are using a DSP chip for ADAS applications. This paper suggests the migration from a DSP configuration to a Microcontroller configuration for ADAS application, for example, using a 32bit Multi-core Microcontroller. In this paper, the following topics will be discussed. Firstly, this paper proposes and describes the system block diagram for ADAS configuration followed by the requirements of the ADAS system. Secondly, the paper discusses the current solutions using a DSP. Thirdly, the paper presents a system that is migrated to a Multi-core microcontroller.
Journal Article

The Challenges of Devising Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2008-04-14
2008-01-0382
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers with incredible levels of peripheral integration. As a result, performance can no longer be measured in MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second). A microcontroller's effectiveness is based on coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, the designer needs benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Partitioning for New Generation of Automatic Transmission Gearbox Controllers

2006-04-03
2006-01-0403
This paper shall present advancements in electronic transmission control circuits addressing new challenges in the gearbox striving for improved vehicle efficiency and comfort of driving. Efficient chipset design, requires finding the optimal partitioning, that is the mapping of functionality to hardware or software and analog or digital circuit technology. The efficiency will be judged by minimal cost whilst achieving improved functionality and required scalability for a platform approach. Specific examples demonstrated are smart sensor architecture and new mapping of control strategies, realized with a novice integrated current control IC concept. Comparisons on system level are used to evaluate different function mappings as well as component partitioning. Details of the most optimized mapping and partitioning will be elaborated and first results of implementation in silicon components will be shown.
Technical Paper

Seamless Solution for Electronic Power Steering

2006-04-03
2006-01-0593
The number of safety critical automotive applications employing high current brushless motors continues to increase (Steering, Braking, and Transmission etc.). There are many benefits when moving from traditional solutions to electrically actuated solutions. Some of these benefits can include increased fuel economy, simplified vehicle installation and packaging, increased feature set, improved safety and/or convenience, simplified unit assembly and modular testability prior as well as during vehicle manufacturing. The trend to implement brushless motors in these applications (which require electronically controlled commutation) has also brought with it the need for powerful inverters, which primarily consist of Power MOSFETs and MOSFET Driver ICs. This paper reviews the challenges associated with the design of safety critical electronic systems which combine sensing, control and actuation.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2007-04-16
2007-01-0512
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers whose performance can no longer be measured in MIPS. Instead, their effectiveness is based on a coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, what the designer needs are benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment. This presentation will explore the role of new benchmarks in the development of complex automotive applications.
Technical Paper

MultiCore Benefits & Challenges for Automotive Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0989
This paper will give an overview of multicore in automotive applications, covering the trends, benefits, challenges, and implementation scenarios. The automotive silicon industry has been building multicore and multiprocessor systems for a long time. The reasons for this choice have been: increased performance, safety redundancy, increased I/O & peripheral, access to multiple architectures (performance type e.g. DSP) and technologies. In the past, multiprocessors have been mainly considered as multi-die, multi-package with simple interconnection such as serial or parallel busses with possible shared memories. The new challenge is to implement a multicore, micro-processor that combines two or more independent processors into a single package, often a single integrated circuit (IC). The multicores allow a computing device to exhibit some form of thread-level parallelism (TLP).
Technical Paper

Advanced Gasoline Engine Management Platform for Euro IV & CHN IV Emission Regulation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1704
The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
Journal Article

Smart Power Semiconductors - Repetitive Short Circuit Operation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0719
In addition to basic switching functionality, smart power switches mainly provide diagnostic and protection functions, e.g. for short circuits to the load, which makes it all the more surprising that short circuit protected smart switches have been used for years in automotive applications without there being a precise definition of a short circuit. This article describes what Infineon has done to fill this gap. It was first necessary to define the kind of short circuits likely to occur in automotive applications and to specify the use and operating points of the smart switches. The next logical step was the standardization of the test circuit and application conditions in the AEC (Automotive Electronics Council) to allow an industry-wide comparison of the test results.
Technical Paper

Microsecond Bus (μSB): The New Open-Market Peripheral Serial Communication Standard

2005-04-11
2005-01-0057
For the past approximately 20 years, the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) has been the established standard for serial communication between a host or central microprocessor and peripheral devices. This standard has been used extensively in control modules covering the entire spectrum of automotive applications, as well as non-automotive applications. As the complexity of engine control modules grows, with the number of vehicle actuators being controlled and monitored increasing, the number of loads the central microprocessor has to manage is growing accordingly. These loads are typically controlled using discrete and pulse-width modulated (PWM) outputs from the microcontroller when real-time operation is essential or via SPI when real-time response is not critical. The increase of already high pin-count on microcontrollers, the associated routing effort and demand for connected power stages is a concern of cost and reliability for future ECU designs.
Technical Paper

Investigations of a Direct Injection System with a “Simulatable Specification” of Smart Bridge Driver ICs

2003-03-03
2003-01-0866
The concept of “Simulatable Specifications” is applied to a Smart Bridge-Driver-IC in order to support an integrated development process of a Direct Injection System. It is demonstrated that the impact of the IC concept on system performance can be investigated long before first Silicon is available. Thus, considerable time in systems development can be saved and, in addition, the feedback loop for conceptual redesigns of the chip is reduced by up to 60 percent.
Technical Paper

Automotive Sensors & Sensor Interfaces

2004-03-08
2004-01-0210
The increasing legal requirements for safety, emission reduction, fuel economy and onboard diagnosis systems push the market for more innovative solutions with rapidly increasing complexity. Hence, the embedded systems that will have to control the automobiles have been developed at such an extent that they are now equivalent in scale and complexity to the most sophisticated avionics systems. This paper will demonstrate the key elements to provide a powerful, scalable and configurable solution that offers a migration pass to evolution and even revolution of automotive Sensors and Sensor interfaces. The document will explore different architectures and partitioning. Sensor technologies such as magnetic field sensors based on the hall effect as well as bulk and surface silicon micro machined sensors will be mapped to automotive applications by examples. Functions such as self-test, self-calibration and self-repair will be developed.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT's for Advanced Distributed Ignition Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0518
Driven by factors like consumption, power output per liter, comfort and more stringent exhaust gas standards the powertain control area, has developed rapidly in the last decades. This trend has also brought with it many innovations in the ignition application. Today we can see a trend to Pencil-coil or Plug-top-coil ignition systems. The next step in system partitioning is to remove the power driver from the ECU and place it directly in/on the coil body. The advantages of the new partitioning - e.g. no high voltage wires, reduced power dissipation on the ECU - are paid with different, mainly tougher requirements for the electronic components. By using specialized technologies for the different functions - IGBT for switching the power, SPT for protection, supply and diagnostics - in chip-on-chip technology all required functions for a decentralized ignition system can be realized in a TO220/ TO263 package.
Technical Paper

Architectural Concepts for Fail-Operational Automotive Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0131
The trend towards even more sophisticated driver assistance systems and growing automation of driving sets new requirements for the robustness and availability of the involved automotive systems. In case of an error, today it is still sufficient that safety related systems just fail safe or silent to prevent safety related influence of the driving stability resulting in a functional deactivation. But the reliance on passive mechanical fallbacks in which the human driver taking over control, being inevitable in such a scenario, is expected to get more and more insufficient along with a rising degree of driving automation as the driver will be given longer reaction time. The advantage of highly or even fully automated driving is that the driver can focus on other tasks than controlling the car and monitoring it’s behavior and environment.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study for a Secure and Seamless Integration of Over the Air Software Update Capability in an Advanced Board Net Architecture

2016-04-05
2016-01-0056
Vehicle manufacturers are challenged by rising costs for vehicle recalls. A major part of the costs are caused by software updates. This paper describes a feasibility study on how to implement software update over the air (SOTA) in light vehicles. The differences and special challenges in the automotive environment in comparison to the cellular industry will be explained. Three key requirements focus on the drivers’ acceptance and thus are crucial for the vehicle manufacturers: SOTA must be protected against malicious attacks. SOTA shall interfere as little as possible with the availability of a vehicle. Long update processes with long vehicle downtimes or even complete fails must be avoided. The functional safety of the vehicle during operation may not be limited in any way The study gives options how those objectives can be achieved. It considers the necessary security measures and describes the required adaptations of the board-net architectures both on software and hardware level.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Injector Dead Time Compensation by Current Feedback

2016-04-05
2016-01-0088
The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. Therefore, it is important to have precise control of the fuel being delivered into the engine. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost. This paper will explain injection control strategy of today during development, and especially the injector dead-time compensation strategy in detail and how further improvements could still be made. The injector current profile behavior will be discussed, and with the use of minimum hardware electronics, this paper will show the way for a new compensation strategy to be adopted.
Technical Paper

AUDO Architecture A Solution to Automotive Micro-Controller Requirements

2000-03-06
2000-01-0145
The C166 family, based on a 16-bit core; it is nowadays an enormous success in automotive, in particular in PowerTrain. This component is the right answer for the automotive real time applications of today. It is with both, automotive customer requirements and a long automotive experience in semi-conductors that this new generation 32-bit family is borne. The objective of this document is to provide and comment on automotive requirements in terms of the new micro-controller, to show the benefits for the applications and explain how the AUDO architecture fulfils these requirements.
Technical Paper

The Low Level Driver Design to Improve Dwell Timing of Engine Management System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1621
In Engine Management System, more accurate control is required to improve engine performance. Especially generating the precise ignition signal has a direct effect on better engine performance. In the beginning of this paper, a basic software structure to synchronize the engine crank signal and generate ignition signals will be explained. Several cases which can generate dwell timing error will be introduced based on this software structure. In addition, each impact level for each error case will be described. For cases of major error, compensation ways will be proposed in order to obtain more accurate dwell timing. The compensation ways by both microcontroller hardware and user software will be explained in detail. In conclusion, this paper will show the accuracy of ignition signal which implements proposed compensation ways that can be improved as compared to conventional ignition signal.
Technical Paper

Cyber Security in the Automotive Domain – An Overview

2017-03-28
2017-01-1652
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. Although cyber security is a common part of daily routines in the traditional IT domain, necessary security mechanisms are not yet widely applied in the vehicles. At first glance, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of solutions from other domains, which potentially could be re-used. But substantial differences compared to an automotive environment have to be taken into account, drastically reducing the possibilities for simple reuse. Our contribution is to address automotive electronics engineers who are confronted with security requirements. Therefore, it will firstly provide some basic knowledge about IT security and subsequently present a selection of automotive specific security use cases.
X