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Technical Paper

Effect of Forming Strain on Fatigue Performance of a Mild Automotive Steel

The effect of forming strains on the fatigue behavior of an automotive mild steel, interstitial free steel, was studied after being prestrained by balanced biaxial stretch and plane strain. In the long life region, higher than 5×105 reversals, prestrain improves fatigue resistance. In the short life region, prestrain reduces fatigue resistance. At even shorter fatigue lives, the detrimental effect of prestrain diminishes. For plane strains, the fatigue behavior is anisotropic. In the direction perpendicular to the major strain, the steel exhibits much better fatigue resistance than in the direction parallel to the major strain.
Technical Paper

Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

Bending under tension is an important deformation mode during stamping and has been observed to limit achievable ductility for high strength steels. This paper presents experimental results from Angular Stretch Bend (ASB) testing, which has been used to characterize bending under tension behavior for several conventional, advanced high strength steels and ultra-high strength steels. Steels that were studied include Bake Hardenable steels, High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels, Dual Phase (DP) steels, Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, and tempered martensitic steels. Failure heights were determined under sample lockout conditions for different punch radii. By comparing absolute formability measured by the failure height, the results can be used to provide material formability ranking for different R/t ratios. In addition, strain distributions were analyzed to provide bending under tension forming limits for the different steel grades.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Press Formability of Advanced High Strength Steels Using Laboratory Tests

To further the application of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. As a first step towards accomplishing this goal, the American Iron and Steel Institute, in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy, jointly funded under the Technology Roadmap Program, a study by Ispat Inland Research Laboratories to characterize the formability of AHSS using simulative laboratory tests. Splitting limits under different conditions and springback behavior of several grades of conventional high strength steels (HSS) such as bake-hardenable and HSLA steels, advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase and TRIP steels, and ultra-high strength steels (UHSS) such as recovery-annealed and tempered martensitic steels were characterized.
Technical Paper

Application of Dual-Phase Steels for Automotive Closure Panels

With interest in improving vehicle quality and customer satisfaction, Ford Motor Company initiated an effort aimed at improving dent resistance of closure panels. An investigation of various means of product improvement led to the recognition of dual phase steels, due to their inherent formability and strain hardening attributes, as the most appropriate steel panel for outer panel applications. Ispat Inland's new Electro-galvanized dual phase steel DI-FORM 500 (henceforth referred to by the generic designation, DP500), which meets 500 MPa minimum tensile strength, was specifically designed to meet automotive exposed quality standards. This paper compares the dent resistance performance of automotive door assemblies manufactured with both Bake Hardenable 210 (BH210) and DP500 door outer panels. Results indicate the achievement of significantly improved outer panel dent resistance through the use of the DP500 product.