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Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis for Bolt Stress of Crank Pulley in a Diesel Engine

A torsional damper is attached to a crankshaft to control the torsional vibration of the crankshaft system. However, the damper, which has a rubber part in between a damper mass and a damper hub, possesses a three-dimensional inertia moment and an inertia mass that could excite the crankshaft system. This paper discusses the generating mechanisms of the bending strain on the bolt to fasten the damper hub to the crankshaft, from the measured bolt strains and the measured behavior of the damper mass and the damper hub under the engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Analysis of Ticking Noise from Cam Bearing of a Diesel Engine

Improving idle sound quality as well as reducing idle noise level is increasingly demanded for diesel engines. Therefore, unusual noise occurrence at idle is a serious problem, and the noise must be removed. This paper describes the characteristics and mechanism of ticking noise that is unusual noise radiated from the journal bearing of the camshaft at low idle speeds, based on the mechanism of cavitation in oil film existing between the journal and bearing.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Impact Noise and Three-Dimensional Vibration

This paper describes the characteristics and mechanism of crankshaft impact noise that radiates from the cylinder body at full load medium engine speeds, based on the mechanism for axial vibration of crankshaft coupled with torsional vibration of crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Stick-Slip Noise from the Crankshaft Oil Seal of the Diesel Engine

The noise of diesel engines operating at low idle is an important noise evaluation criterion in both commercial vehicles and passenger cars. At low idle, a quiet, pleasant noise is required. Accordingly, unusual noise occurrence at low speed is a serious problem, and the noise must be prevented. In this paper, characteristics of the stick-slip noise, which is an unusual noise that radiates from the oil seal at low idle and the generating mechanism of the stick-slip noise in the six-cylinder-inline diesel engine are discussed. In addition, a method to prevent the stick-slip noise is presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Bending Stresses on the Crankshaft in a V-Type Six-Cylinder Diesel Engine

Engine vibration is a great disadvantage of a V-type six-cylinder engine because ignition does not occur at regular intervals. The engine achieves ignition at regular intervals by having a crank pin offset crankshaft. The shape of the crank pin offset crankshaft is so complex that the location of the crank pin on which bending stress concentrates cannot be obtained easily. This paper reports on the mechanism that generates bending stresses on the crank pin, and discusses the location at which the maximum bending stress is generated with crank pin offset crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Six-Cylinder-In-Line Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Crankshaft Torsional Vibration Characteristics

Engine crankshafts have been designed to avoid low-harmonic-order resonant torsional vibration in a commonly-used engine speed range, but the authors have found that, in some engines, especially turbo-charged engines, a significant degree of a low-harmonic-order exciting torque acts on the crankshaft. In these engines, the amplitude of non-resonant low-harmonic-order torsional vibration is almost as large as that of the resonant one. The authors conclude that the 3rd-order non-resonant torsional amplitude is not only significant but also characteristic of the turbo-charged engine in comparison with the naturally-aspirated engine, and recommend that crankshafts on turbo-charged diesel engines should be made stiffer than those on naturally-aspirated engines.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Proposal of New Supercharging System for Heavy Duty Vehicular Diesel and Simulation Results of Transient Characteristics

Supercharging system is obviously a necessary technology for heavy duty vehicular diesel to meet future stringent emission regulation as well as to improve fuel consumption characteristics. Although the conventional exhaust turbocharger system improves fuel consumption, there are some problems such as having a difficulty in improving starting acceleration and smoke emission characteristic because the response of an exhaust supercharger is not enough. On the other hand, the conventional mechanical supercharging system seems to be a quite effective aid for acceleration ability. However, it does not satisfy demand for low fuel consumption characteristic.
Technical Paper

The Isuzu P’UP - Fully Remodeled Small Pickup Truck

The P’UP has been on the markets worldwide since 1972, both in Japan and overseas, including for the U.S., in which case, with model designation as the Chevrolet LUV. In 1980, for the first time since its market introduction, it was fully remodelled with detail improvements reflected thereon in every aspect. This new model continues to be on the U.S. market as the Chevrolet LUV as it has been, but, beginning from spring of 1981, the similar model has been introduced to the market by the American Isuzu Motors Inc. (AIM) as the Isuzu P’UP. Taking this opportunity, a diesel version has been added to its model lineup. The diesel engine mounted on this version features its 20 to 30% better fuel efficiency over its gasoline counterpart. In the first half of this paper, the engineering concepts of its full remodelling and their onvehicle reflection will be introduced.
Technical Paper

Experiment and Computation Analyses for Torsional Vibration of Crankshaft System with Viscous Torsional Damper on Diesel Engine

Experiment results were compared with computation analysis results for torsional vibration on a crankshaft system with/without a torsional viscous damper on a six-cylinder in-line type turbocharged diesel engine and a V type ten-cylinder naturally-aspirated diesel engine respectively. At first, the boundary conditions for boundary element method (BEM) model were determined to estimate the torsional stiffness of the crank-throws of the crankshafts. Then, the estimated stiffness was used to calculate the natural frequencies of the torsional vibration without the damper by dynamic stiffness matrix method. As a result, the calculated natural frequencies approximately agreed with the measured ones. Finally, the torsional vibration with the damper was analyzed by using the dynamic stiffness matrix method and complex viscous damping coefficients for the damper. The calculated torsional amplitudes and resonant engine speeds agreed with the experiment results.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Static and Dynamic Behavior of the Cylinder Head Gasket in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Intercooler

This paper describes measurement and calculation method for determining pressure on an engine gasket under the static and dynamic condition. At first, the relationship between the strain of the cylinder liner and the pressure on the gasket was determined. Then the strain of the cylinder liner was measured under the static condition as well as under the dynamic condition. The gasket contact pressure was also calculated by computer using FEM model. The calculation results were compared with the measurement results. Finally, the effects of the combustion pressure and heat on the gasket contact pressure were discussed based on the strains.
Technical Paper

New 12L 6WA1TC Turbocharged Diesel Engine

GVW 20 ton class cargo trucks were mainly powerd by L6 turbocharged engines ISUZU 6SD1TC and ISUZU 6RB1TC, and this time new 6WA1TC turbocharged engine with intercooler as a successor to 6RB1TC went into production in July 1992. In the recent cargo vehicle market in Japan, demand is increasing for higher out-put power, light weight, long service life, high reliability and low fuel consumption. Under such circumstances special engineering attention was paid to exhaust emissions and noise regulations which are expected to become even stricter in future. The basic engine structure consists of an OHC 4-valve type cylinder head and a ladder frame type cylinder block which satisfies the requirements for the high out-put power, low fuel consumption and light weight. Also, adopted are various variable structures such as a high pressure fuel injection pump with a variable injection timing and rate control device, variable swirl system and variable geometry turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Diesel Engine Performance by Variable Swirl System

In order to meet the demands for reduced emissions and improved fuel consumption, a subport-type variable swirl system (Isuzu Variable Electronic Economy Swirl, or IVES) was developed by Isuzu for medium- and heavy-duty direct-injection-type diesel engines. The main characteristics of IVES are: (1) It is simple in structure and only minor changes to the cylinder head are required. (2) Modular design is possible for three different swept volume engines due to the use of a common actuator and sensor. (3) The problem of air flow coefficient drop when swirl is varied has been successfully eliminated.
Technical Paper

New Connection System Between Ceramic and Metal for Adiabatic Piston Head

This paper describe the metal-to-ceramic joining method which is important for building ceramic adiabatic engine and deals with the potential of pistons for use for adiabatic ceramic engine. Although various ceramic-to-metal joining methods have been developed, the chemical bonding method such as brazing and diffusion bonding is not only inferior in complex joining process and heat resistance, but also incapable of attaining the bonding strength of 196Mpa required of engineering ceramics. The ceramic-to-metal bonding attained generally by mechanical method such as staking results in the failure of ceramic bonding face due to a strong shearing force accompanied by the plastic deformation of metal. Therefore, the reduction of the shearing force between the ceramic and metal materials and the improvement of plasticity of the metal are necessary.
Technical Paper

A New Look at the Utilization of Alternate Fuels for Diesel Engines - IDIS

Application of alternate fuels to diesel engine is much desired. A new and unique dual-fuel injection system has been developed for high speed automotive diesel engines. This system has two features. One is that alternate fuels such as methanol, ethanol and biomass, are directly inducted into the fuel injection pipe through one-way check valve under pressure, and blended fuels are simultaneously injected into the combustion chamber. The other is that various kinds of fuel can be easily adapted to this system not dependent upon the fuel properties such as viscosity. Using a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine and ethanol as an alternate fuel, injection characteristics and exhaust gas emissions were investigated. The results showed that ethanol could replace up to 50% of diesel fuel while keeping the normal engine operating stability. A better fuel economy was also obtained by applying both higher compression ratio and advanced injection timing.
Technical Paper

Power and Cross Spectral Analysis of an Automobile Engine Mounting

A simple and easy calculation may be performed, using a three-mass vibration system model, to study the influence of an engine mounting on automobile vertical vibration. The advantage of an engine mounting of high damping rubber is confirmed by this calculation, and is further verified by using power and cross spectral analysis of an automobile random vibration. The validity of the three-mass vibration system is shown.
Technical Paper

Experiments and Analysis of Crankshaft Three-Dimensional Vibrations and Bending Stresses in a V-Type Ten-Cylinder Engine: Influence of Crankshaft Gyroscopic Motions

Torsional dampers have been attached to engine crankshafts only for the control of the crankshaft torsional vibrations. However, a torsional damper is a mass-spring system of three-dimensions, so the torsional damper could exert some influence on the three-dimensional vibrations of the crankshaft system. Since the inertia ring of the torsional damper has moments of inertia and it rotates with the crankshaft, gyroscopic vibrations of the inertia ring can also be generated. For a V-type ten-cylinder diesel engine (V- 10, ϕ119 × 150), the three-dimensional vibrations of the crankshaft system were calculated by the dynamic stiffness matrix method, taking account of the influence of the gyroscopic vibrations of the inertia ring of the torsional damper. The dynamic bending stresses were measured at the fillets of both the No.1 crank journal and the No.1 crank pin in the No.1 crank throw plane.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting and Improving NVH and Stress in Operating Crankshaft Using Nonlinear Vibration Analysis

Vibration behavior of a crankshaft in operation is complicated and difficult to simulate because of oil effects on journals, coupled vibration of crankshaft system parts, combustion and inertia acting on the crankshaft. Particularly, the stiffness and damping of oil film vary with crank angles and thus the numerical analysis must deal with nonlinear vibration. This oil film effects also diversify the vibration modes of the crankshat; the vibration modes in an actual operation differs from that in statically experiment modal analysis. This paper describes a new method developed by the author to analyses, predict, and reduce noise and vibration using several techniques including numerical simulation, finite element method, Sommerfeld concept on oil film effects, and modal frequency response.
Technical Paper

The Optimum Design of Engine Cooling System by Computer Simulation

This paper shows one example of cooling system, optimized by utilizing computer simulation in the early development stage. First, a numerical simulation is conducted to obtain the air flow rate through engine compartment room by the software “STREAM”. Second, ΔTw are calculated by the software “KULI”, developed by Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG, to evaluate the original cooling system. Third, the optimization of this system is conducted by the design of experiment for cost saving and weight reduction. The test value was well matched with the calculated one and CAE was confirmed to be very helpful for saving the proto-build cost and time period.
Technical Paper

Influence of Material and Mechanical Properties on Thermal Fatigue Life of Aluminum Castings

There is ever an increasing need for weight reduction and high performance of engine (clean smoke and improving fuel economy) To achieve this, recently aluminum castings are used for engine parts such as cylinder heads that construct combustion chamber and are required thermal resistance. This paper describes thermal fatigue tests of aluminum castings that are made under various conditions of cooling rate during solidification, heat treatment, and chemical compositions. It further investigates the influence of material (such as cooling rate, chemical conmposition and heat treatment) and mechanical properties (such as σB, δ, E ) on thermal fatigue life of aluminum castings.