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Technical Paper

Sand Dune Impact Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1318
Robustness to sand dune impact is one of the key requirements for Jaguar Land Rover products. Historically off road vehicles were built on a ladder sub frame; and the steel cross beam at the front provided robust protection for the cooling pack. With the move to monocoque construction, the cooling pack became vulnerable to low speed grounding damage. Unfortunately this vulnerability is not confirmed until later in the program when fully representative vehicles are available, which results in late engineering changes that are expensive, time consuming and stressful. Like all late changes it is rarely optimised for cost and weight. With no historic literature or procedure available, the challenge was to model the physics of sand media and also solve the complex multi-physics problem of impact of the whole vehicle with the sand dune.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Exterior Surface Pressures and Interior Cabin Noise in Response to Vehicle Form Changes

2011-05-17
2011-01-1618
Automotive manufactures demand early assessment of vehicle form design against wind noise attribute to eliminate any engineering waste induced by late design changes. To achieve such an assessment, it is necessary to determine a measurable quantity which is able to represent vehicle form changes, and to understand the relationship between the quantity and vehicle interior cabin noise. This paper reports experimental measurements of vehicle exterior surface pressure and the interior cabin noise level in response to the change of exterior rear view mirror shape. Measurements show that exterior surface pressure on vehicle greenhouse panel is a primary factor of wind noise load to the interior cabin noise; they can be used in preliminary wind noise ranking. Care should be taken when using them in ranking vehicle form wind noise performance. It has been observed that a change in surface pressure on the front side window does not necessarily lead to a change in the interior cabin noise.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of External Distribution of Tail-Pipe Emissions Around a Stationary Vehicle Under Light Tail-Wind Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0586
A potentially important, but inadequately studied, source of passengers' exposure to pollutants when a road vehicle is stationary, with an idling engine, results from the ingestion of a vehicle's own exhaust into the passenger compartment through the HVAC intake. We developed and applied a method to determine the fraction of a vehicle's exhaust entering the cabin by this route. Further the influence of three parameters: ambient tail-wind speed, vehicle ground clearance and tail pipe angle, is assessed. The study applies Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation to the distribution of exhaust gasses around a vehicle motorized with a 2.2 liter Diesel engine. The simulation employs efficient meshing techniques and realistic loading conditions to develop a general knowledge of the distribution of the gasses in order to inform engineering design.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

2014-04-01
2014-01-1408
Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0924
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.
Technical Paper

Influence of Short Rear End Tapers on the Unsteady Base Pressure of a Simplified Ground Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1590
Short tapered sections on the trailing edge of the roof, underside and sides of a vehicle are a common feature of the aerodynamic optimization process and are known to have a significant effect on the base pressure and thereby the vehicle drag. In this paper the effects of such high aspect ratio chamfers on the time-dependent base pressure are investigated. Short tapered surfaces, with a chord approximately equal to 4% of the overall model length, were applied to the trailing edges of a simplified passenger car model (the Windsor Body) and base pressure studied via an array of surface pressure tappings. Two sets of configurations were tested. In the first case, a chamfer was applied only to the top or bottom trailing edge. A combination of taper angles was also considered. In the second case, the chamfer was applied to the side edges of the model base, leaving the horizontal trailing edges squared.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

2016-04-05
2016-01-1604
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Robust Application of CBE and OBE for Engine Testing System Diagnosis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0987
Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions. To validate the air fuel ratio balance model an experimental investigation was carried out for D2 5 mode and C1 8 mode cycle test.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays

2015-09-06
2015-24-2463
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
Technical Paper

Advances in Modelling A-Pillar Water Overflow

2015-04-14
2015-01-1549
Driving when it is raining can be a stressful experience. Having a clear unobstructed view of the vehicles and road around you under these conditions is especially important. Heavy rain conditions can however overwhelm water management devices resulting in water rivulets flowing over the vehicle's side glass. These rivulets can significantly impair the driver's ability to see the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Designing water management features for vehicles is a challenging venture as testing is not normally possible until late in the design phase. Additionally traditional water management features such as grooves and channels have both undesirable design and wind noise implications. Having the ability to detect water management issues such as A-pillar overflow earlier in the design cycle is desirable to minimize the negative impact of water management features. Numerical simulation of windscreen water management is desirable for this reason.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2596
Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Kinetic Parameters for an Aftertreatment Catalyst

2014-10-13
2014-01-2814
Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, and so mathematical models of aftertreatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions. Automotive catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of a Swirl Flap and Asymmetric Inlet Valve Opening on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2429
Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

2017-10-08
2017-01-2255
A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Vehicle's Transient Aerodynamic Response

2012-04-16
2012-01-0449
A vehicle on the road encounters an unsteady flow due to turbulence in the natural wind, due to the unsteady wakes of other vehicles and as a result of traversing through the stationary wakes of roadside obstacles. There is increasing concern about potential differences between the steady flow conditions used for development and the transient conditions that occur on the road. This paper seeks to determine if measurements made under steady state conditions can be used to predict the aerodynamic behaviour of a vehicle on road in a gusty environment. The project has included measurements in two full size wind tunnels, including using the Pininfarina TGS, steady-state and transient inlet simulations in Exa Powerflow, and a campaign of testing on-road and on-track. The particular focus of this paper is on steady wind tunnel measurements and on-road tests, representing the most established development environment and the environment experienced by the customer, respectively.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Journal Article

Octane Response in a Downsized, Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1397
Increasingly strict government emissions regulations in combination with consumer demand for high performance vehicles is driving gasoline engine development towards highly downsized, boosted direct injection technologies. In these engines, fuel consumption is improved by reducing pumping, friction and heat losses, yet performance is maintained by operating at higher brake mean effective pressure. However, the in-cylinder conditions of these engines continue to diverge from traditional naturally aspirated technologies, and especially from the Cooperative Fuels Research engine used to define the octane rating scales. Engine concepts are thus key platforms with which to screen the influence of fundamental fuel properties on future engine performance.
Journal Article

Octane Appetite: The Relevance of a Lower Limit to the MON Specification in a Downsized, Highly Boosted DISI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2718
Market demand for high performance gasoline vehicles and increasingly strict government emissions regulations are driving the development of highly downsized, boosted direct injection engines. The in-cylinder temperatures and pressures of these emerging technologies tend to no longer adhere to the test conditions defining the RON and MON octane rating scales. This divergence between fuel knock rating methods and fuel performance in modern engines has previously led to the development of an engine and operating condition dependent scaling factor, K, which allows for extrapolation of RON and MON values. Downsized, boosted DISI engines have been generally shown to have negative K-values when knock limited, indicating a preference for fuels of higher sensitivity and challenging the relevance of a lower limit to the MON specification.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
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