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Technical Paper

Effect of Alcohol Fuels on Fuel-Line Materials of Gasoline Vehicles

In 1999, some Japanese fuel suppliers sold highly concentrated alcohol fuels, which are mixtures of gasoline and oxygenates, such as alcohol or ether, in amounts of 50% or more. In August 2001, it was reported that some vehicle models using the highly concentrated alcohol fuels encountered fuel leakage and vehicle fires due to corrosion of the aluminum used for the fuel-system parts. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Government of Japan (MLIT) jointly established the committee on safety for highly concentrated alcohol fuels in September 2001. The committee consisted of automotive technology and metal corrosion experts knowledgeable about preventing such accidents and ensuring user safety. Immersion tests were conducted on metals and other materials used for the fuel-supply system parts to determine the corrosion resistance to each alcohol component contained in the highly concentrated alcohol fuels.
Technical Paper

Japanese Standards for Diesel Fuel Containing 5% FAME: Investigation of Acid Generation in FAME Blended Diesel Fuels and Its Impact on Corrosion

The Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has conducted conformity tests of diesel fuel containing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) to amend diesel fuel standards in Japan. The objective of the tests is to examine appropriate specifications of diesel fuel containing FAME for automotive use for existing vehicles in the Japanese market. The conformity testing includes verification of fuel system component compatibility, tail pipe emissions, and characterization of the reliability and durability of the engine system, including the fuel injection system. In designing the conformity tests, the maximum FAME concentration was 5%. Most of the new standards are essentially equivalent to EN14214, but the total acid number (TAN) of specific acids, and oxidation stability of the new standards for diesel fuel containing FAME, are different from EN14214.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Degradation and Acid Generation in Diesel Fuel Containing 5% FAME

Compared with diesel fuel, FAME is relatively unstable and readily generates acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid. When FAME-blended diesel fuel is used in existing diesel vehicles, it is important to maintain the concentration of FAME-origin acid in the fuel at an appropriately low level to assure vehicle safety. In the present study, the oxidation of diesel fuel containing 5% FAME is investigated. Several kinds of FAMEs were examined, including reagents such as methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, as well as commercially available products. The level of acid, peroxide, water, and methanol and the pressure of the testing vessel were measured. The result shows that unsaturated FAMEs that have two or more double bonds are unstable. Also, water is generated by oxidation of FAME blended diesel fuel, accelerating corrosion of the terne sheet.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Urea SCR Systems on Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

Four urea SCR systems were developed and evaluated on a C/D and on the road to investigate their potential for Japanese emission regulations in 2005 and beyond. Test results showed that NOx conversion ratios were 50 to 70% during the Japanese D13 mode cycle, and the ratios under the transient driving cycle were lower than those tested during a steady state. Unregulated emissions, such as benzene, aldehyde and benzo[a]pyrene, existed either at a trace level using the oxidation catalyst, or lower than a base diesel engine, when no oxidation catalyst was used. The health effects of particulate matter emitted from the SCR system were almost the same as those from conventional diesel engines, as evaluated by the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test. Thermal degradation products, such as cyanuric acid and melamine, were two to four figures lower compared with the toxicological information of Safety Information Resources Inc. (SIRI).