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Technical Paper

Improvement of Hydroplaning Performance Based on Water Flow around Tires

The objective of this study is to improve tire hydroplaning performance by examining the arrangement of the tread grooves, based on water flow. It is important to smoothly channel the water through the tread grooves to improve performance. For this purpose, flow around the tire contact area was visualized by particle tracing. The velocity and the direction of flow in front of the contact area became clear as a vector map. This vector map indicated that the direction of the flow depends primarily on the lateral position, i.e., the distance from the tread center. Tread grooves parallel to the flow vector were designed based on this result. The visualization of the improved tire demonstrated that water flowed smoothly along the grooves. In addition, a drum test indicated increased cornering force at high speed.
Technical Paper

Methanol Lean Burn in an Auto-Ignition DI Engine

A new combustion system targeting a drastic decrease in NOx emission and a brake specific energy consumption equivalent to that of a DI diesel engine has been developed. In this new combustion system, a lean burn system using early injection was employed to reduce NOx emission and an auto-ignition DI engine system was employed to achieve the low energy consumption. Methanol was used as the fuel for reducing NOx emission. The objective of this study is to clarify the possibility of the system for the auto-ignition of a premixed lean mixture of methanol fuel. This study shows that the gas temperature at ignition, Tig, is the predominant factor affecting auto-ignition. Auto-ignition occurs when Tig exceeds approximately 1000K. The methanol lean burn system in an auto-ignition DI engine drastically decreased NOx emission with almost the same brake specific energy consumption as a diesel engine in the middle load region.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Exhaust Emissions from Methanol Fueled Vehicle by Intermittent Dual-Fluid Exhaust Burner (IDEB)

Intermittent Dual-fluid Exhaust Burner (IDEB) has been developed to reduce emissions from methanol fueled vehicles during the warm-up period after a cold start. The IDEB does not need any special fuel injector or blower, and has been built mainly through software modification of an ECU. An FTP mode test while operating an IDEB confirmed that the catalyst temperature was rapidly increased to significantly reduce the emissions to meet a level of ULEV standards.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of White Smoke Generation Derived from Hydrocarbons Accumulations on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

White smoke emission is observed at the tailpipe of diesel vehicles when unburned hydrocarbons (HCs) are adsorbed on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) under low exhaust gas temperature. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of white smoke emission derived from HCs, and to reduce emission levels. First, the components of HCs and the particle size distribution of white smoke emission were analyzed. It was clarified that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) and water are condensed around soluble organic fraction and the order of particle size in white smoke is submicron scale. Additionally, the correlation between the behavior of white smoke emission and the amount/quality of HCs adsorbed on a DOC were investigated by examining the change of zeolite content in the DOC. It was found that the heavy HCs ratio in adsorbed HCs on DOC increases with a decrease in zeolite content when DOC inlet gas temperature is 120 °C.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

O-PM / Emitted Matters Caused by Two-Stroke Engine Oil and Its Reduction

In recent research, decreasing oil consumption and using a synthetic oil have been shown to be effective methods of reducing smoke emissions. However, the investigation of the constituents of white smoke and its environmental effect on humans have not been undertaken. The purpose of this investigation is to clarify the characteristics and compositions of white smoke and to analyze its environmental effect on humans using Ames test, and to evaluate a control for reduction of emitted matter by steady-state engine tests. Emitted matters(EM) from synthetic oil is less than that of semi-synthetic and mineral oils under the same test conditions. Emission after treatment resulted in the lowest EM when simulating the results of the ISO 6460 test, which results showed a decrease to about 1/10. EM from two-stroke engine mainly consists of unburned engine-oil and more than 95 % of EM is soluble organic fraction (SOF).
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles II

JCAPII gasoline workgroup reported vehicle emission study to comprehend the impact of ETBE blending. In previous study, we focused on the compatibility of ETBE blended gasoline with Japanese current gasoline vehicles in-use. Based on recent discussion with ETBE 8% blended gasoline into the market, more information becomes necessary. In this second report, we studied to comprehend the actual emission impact using realistic model fuels using several base stocks. Fuel properties of T50, T90 and aromatic compound content were selected through discussions. Specifications were changed within the range of the market. Both ETBE 0% and 8% were combined for these fuel matrixes. In total, eight fuels and two reference fuels were tested. Two J-ULEV vehicles (one MPI, and a stoichiometric-SIDI) were procured as representatives. We discussed quantitative and qualitative impact toward emissions. Data regarding CO2 and fuel economy change were also reported.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Technical Paper

Potential of Nanoparticle Formation by Vehicles

For the better understanding of nanoparticles observed on the rode side, adding to the emission test on the chassis dynamometer and engine dynamometer test, possible factors for formation of nanoparticles are investigated. As other possible factors, cold starting of transient test cycle, blow-by gas from heavy duty diesel engine without a positive crankcase ventilation, exhaust braking, and plume mixing of vehicle exhausts were investigated. Nuclei mode particles under the transient test cycles formed during fuel cut period, fuel enrichment period and idling period. Concentration of nuclei mode particles during the idling period are depends on exhaust temperature. The higher exhaust temperature courses the lower number concentration but variation range is within twice. Emission rate of nanoparticles from blow-by gas is one thousandth of tail pipe emissions rate and was found to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Safety Evaluation on Fuel Cell Stacks Fire and Toxicity Evaluation of Material Combustion Gas for FCV

Fuel cell vehicles represent a new system, and their safety has not yet been fully proved comparing with present automobile. Thorough safety evaluation is especially needed for the fuel system, which uses hydrogen as fuel, and the electric system, which uses a lot of electricity. The fuel cell stacks that are to be loaded on fuel cell vehicles generate electricity by reacting hydrogen and oxygen through electrolytic polymer membranes which is very thin. The safety of the fuel and electric systems should also be assessed for any abnormality that may be caused by electrolytic polymer membranes for any reasons. The purpose of our tests is to collect basic data to ultimately establish safety standards for fuel cell stacks. Methanol pool flame exposure tests were conducted on stationary use fuel cell stacks of two 200W to evaluate safety in the event of a fire.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ferrocene on Engine and Vehicle Performance

Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on the Performance of Advanced Diesel NOx Aftertreatment Devices

In the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) Diesel WG, effects of fuel properties on the performance of two types of diesel NOx emission aftertreatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined. For a Urea-SCR system, the NOx emission reduction performance with and without an oxidation catalyst installed in front of the SCR catalyst at low exhaust gas temperature operation was compared. For an NSR catalyst system, the effect of fuel sulfur on both emissions and fuel economy during 50,000 km driving was examined. Furthermore, effects of other fuel properties such as distillation on exhaust emissions were investigated. The results show that sulfur is the influential factor for both devices. Namely, high NOx emission reduction performance of the Urea-SCR system with the oxidation catalyst at low exhaust gas temperature operation is influenced by sulfur.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.