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Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Measurement Method for Fuel Cell Vehicle - Flow Method corresponding to Pressure Pulsation of Hydrogen flow -

Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) have developed the flow method as an easy way of measuring hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in real-time. A 2004 study on fuel consumption of five models of FCVs, measured by thermal flowmeters and based on gravimetric method, exhibited measurement errors within ±1% range for three models, but the errors were as large as -8% for two models that showed significant pulsation in hydrogen consumption flow. Assuming that the pulsation is the cause of errors in the flow method, we analyzed influences of pulsation in each flowmeter from two points (frequency and amplitude) and found that pulsation indeed caused flowmeter errors. Expansion chambers (Buffers) and throttle valves (regulators) were confirmed to have an effect in attenuating pulsation. Amplitude of pulsation shrunk to one tenths when such pulsation-reducing instruments were introduced between pulsating FCVs and flowmeters and were put to test.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Measurement Methods for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

Japan Automobile Research Institute has devised and evaluated the various fuel consumption measurement methods for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). The examination covers the methods based on measurement of electrical current, hydrogen pressure/temperature, weight and flow rate that are expected to be the same accuracy and convenience as conventional measurement methods such as carbon balance method or fuel flow measurement method. As a result of examining the measurement accuracy for each method with a sonic nozzle used as a standard, it is found that both the pressure method and the weight method fulfill the target accuracy of ±1% and that the flow method is able to improve the accuracy by means of calibration with hydrogen. Also, as a result of applying each method to the fuel consumption test of FCVs, the relative error between the pressure method and weight method is within ±1%.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ferrocene on Engine and Vehicle Performance

Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Calculation of Hydrogen Consumption for Fuel Cell Vehicles by Exhaust Gas Formulation

The hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles (FCV) can be measured by the gravimetric, pressure and flow methods within a ±1% error. These are the methods acknowledged by ISO and SAE [1, 2], but require the test vehicles to be modified in order to supply hydrogen from an external, rather than the onboard tank. Consequently, technical assistance of the vehicle manufacturer is necessary for this modification, while various components in the test vehicle must be readjusted. For these reasons, a measurement method free of vehicle modification is in great demand. The present study therefore developed an “oxygen balance method” which determines the amount of hydrogen that has reacted with oxygen in the fuel cell stack by measuring the oxygen concentration in exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Measuring Method of Fuel Consumption for Natural Gas Vehicles

To achieve high-accuracy measurements of fuel consumption in testing on natural gas vehicles, a method for measuring the absolute value of fuel consumption by the gravimetric method using certificated reference weights and an electric platform scale has been developed. By performing a flow-meter test and a chassis dynamometer test using the gravimetric method, the measurement accuracy of the value of fuel flow rate and fuel consumption obtained by the fuel flow meters, carbon balance method, and air-to-fuel ratio method was evaluated. As a result, a highly accurate method for measuring fuel consumption in chassis dynamometer tests has been confirmed.
Technical Paper

Regional Trade and Emission Gas in Asian Automobile Industry

This paper is an attempt to estimate the traffic demand of private vehicles in the Philippines and Thailand toward 2030. Estimation of road traffic volume is one of the most important elements for determining fuel consumption and emission gas levels. The level of passenger car ownership is still low, but there has been a distinct shift toward passenger cars due to the lack of mass transport. In Asian countries, inspection and maintenance and emission standards are the most important policy measures. The projections of car stock are evaluated as the emissions of PM, CO and NOx by applying these policy measures in the case of Thailand.