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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on the MIRA Reference Car Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0603
Automobile industry is facing the great challenge of energy conservation and emission reduction. It's necessary to do some researches on some surface components of a car body to find out which of them may affect aerodynamic drag remarkably. This will help an aerodynamic engineer modify an initial car model more clearly. We also hope to reduce the cost during the process, including time and resources. In this paper, with the purpose of developing an aerodynamic shape optimization process and realizing its automation, a MIRA reference car model was studied and three commercial softwares were integrated-Altair HyperStudy, HyperMesh and CD-adapco STAR-CCM+. The optimization strategy in this paper was: firstly, a DOE (design of experiment) matrix, which contained four design factors and thirty levels was created. The baseline model was morphed according to the DOE matrix. Then the morphed model's aerodynamic drag coefficient (Cd) and lift coefficient (Cl) were calculated via CFD software.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Optimization of the Variable Stiffness Suspension of a Light Bus Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm

2014-04-01
2014-01-0883
In order to reasonably match the variable stiffness suspension and optimize the ride comfort and stability of a light bus, a virtual prototype model of the light bus was established in Adams-Car. Before the optimization, the tyre mechanical characteristics were tested by using a plate-type tyre tester, then the magic formula model of the tyre (Pac2002) was obtained by means of the global parameter identification method. The vertical vibration of the virtual model was simulated with the simulated B-class road profile, and its handling stability performance was also studied by simulation of the pylon course slalom test and steady static circular test. After that, an optimal method of the variable stiffness suspension was put forward. In the proposed method, the two-level stiffness (k1, k2) and the damping of the rear suspension and the torsional stiffness of the pre and post stabilizer bars were taken as the optimal variables.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of In-Cylinder Stratification with Different CO2 Introduction Strategies in Diesel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2635
In order to improve the performance of low temperature combustion of diesel engines to achieve ultra-low emissions and load condition expansions, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stratification in the cylinder was proposed to further intensify local EGR concentration and reduce the amount of EGR to acquire high average oxygen concentration within cylinder. In this study, the intake/exhaust port and combustion chamber models were explored by CFD software on a four-valve HD diesel engine, and fresh air and EGR respectively replaced by O2 and CO2 were introduced with division and timing intake strategies during the intake process for stratification optimization.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2589
The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
Technical Paper

Optimized Torque Distribution Algorithm to Improve the Energy Efficiency of 4WD Electric Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2374
This paper presents a torque distribution algorithm to improve the energy efficiency of four-wheel-drive (4WD) electric vehicles with PMSM hub motors. In order to optimize the torque distribution method, at first the motor model considering the affect of iron loss and the loss model of multi-motors drive system of 4WD electric vehicle with PMSM hub motors, which operate at straight-line condition, are established. Besides, realize the online identification of motor parameters based on the MARS, which is important for updating the loss model parameters of the motor drive system. By doing this, the ideal torque distribution ratio can be obtained from the loss model in real-time. The simulation result using different distribution algorithms shows that the optimized torque distribution algorithm based on the loss model can be useful for improving the energy efficiency.
Journal Article

An Accurate Modeling for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wheel Motor Including Iron Loss

2014-04-01
2014-01-1867
For high torque permanent magnet wheel motor, this paper describes an experimental research method to optimize and identify the motor parameters based on the results of offline calculation. In order to improve the accuracy of motor parameters identification, the motor model considering the affect of iron loss was established, and the motor parameters were identified using genetic algorithm (GA). Based on this, parameters validation experiment was performed. The results show that: parameters obtained by this method can be used to describe the steady-state and transient-state response of permanent magnet synchronous motors accurately.
Journal Article

Combined Longitudinal and Lateral Control for Automated Lane Guidance of Full Drive-by-Wire Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0321
This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
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