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Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Structure Optimization and Interior Noise Reduction of Commercial Vehicle Cab

In order to improve ride comfort and reduce interior noise of commercial vehicles, modal sensitivity analysis and optimization design of a commercial vehicle cab was carried out, which increased the first natural frequency of the optimized cab by 23.96%. The result of cab modal test verified the correctness of the finite element model and the effectiveness of the improving method. The structure-acoustic coupling model of the cab was established, and the acoustic response of the coupled sound field was predicted. The sound pressure level of the optimized cab was reduced. In comparison of the optimized cab with the original one, the optimization scheme was confirmed to be effective and reasonable.
Journal Article

Physical Modeling of Shock Absorber Using Large Deflection Theory

In this paper, a shock absorber physical model is developed. Firstly, a rebound valve model which is based on its structure parameters is built through using the large deflection theory. The von Karman equations are introduced to discover the physical relationships between the load and the deflection of valve discs. An analytical solution of the von Karman equations is then deducted via perturbation method. Secondly, the flow equations and the pressure equations of the shock absorber operating are investigated. The relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop of rebound valve is analyzed based on the analytical solution of valve discs deflection. Thirdly, an inter-iterative process of flow rate and pressure drop is employed in order to adequately consider the influence of fluid flow on damping force. Finally, the physical model is validated by comparing the experimental data with the simulation output.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bus Body Based on Vehicle Interior Vibration

In order to solve the abnormal vibration of a light bus, order tracking analysis of finite element simulation and road test was made to identify the vibration source, finding that the rotation angular frequency of the wheels and the first two natural frequency of the body structure overlaps, resonance occurring which lead to increased vibration. To stagger the first two natural frequency and excitation frequency of the body, thickness of sheet metal and skeleton of the body-in-white were chosen as the design variables, rise of the first two natural frequency of the body-in-white as the optimization objective, optimal design and sensitivity analysis of the body-in-white was carried out with the modal analysis theory. Combining with the modal sensitivity and mass sensitivity of sheet metal and skeleton, the optimum design was achieved and tests analysis was conducted.
Technical Paper

Improving Light Bus Handling and Stability by Anti-roll Bar and Bushing Adjustment

In order to improve the handling and stability of a light bus at high speed, a virtual model was established in Adams-Car and its anti-roll bar and bushing parameters were virtually optimized. The tyre mechanical characteristics were firstly tested by using a plate-type tyre tester and the Magic Formula parameters of the tyre were obtained. Then the virtual bus model's handling performance were studied by the simulation of central steering test and steady static circular test. An optimal matching method was put forward. By using genetic algorithm to conduct optimization, the optimised parameters were obtained. After that the anti-roll bar and bushing samples were respectively manufactured. At last, the comparative trials were performed in an automotive proving ground, and the subjective evaluation of the light bus's handling and stability was taken by three specialized assessors.
Technical Paper

One Calculation Method of the Contact Load of a Two-Level Variable Stiffness Suspension

This paper presented one calculation method of the contact load, which is the load acted on the spring at the moment when the second-level stiffness of the spring just begins to work. In the proposed method, the contact load calculation mainly based on the dynamic load of the unsprung mass and the road grades and the commonly driving speed were also considered. A semiempirical formula of the contact load was put forward. Then the contact load of the commercial bus's rear suspension was respectively calculated by using the proposed formula and traditional methods(geometric mean method and average load method) to compare each other and to verify the new method. Later, the spring samples were respectively manufactured based on the calculation results. At last, the validation tests were respectively performed in an automotive proving ground.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Estimation of Front Subframe of a Passenger Car Based on Modal Stress Recovery Method

In this paper, the dynamic stress of the front subframe of a passenger car was obtained using modal stress recovery method to estimate the fatigue life. A finite element model of the subframe was created and its accuracy was checked by modal test in a free hanging state. Furthermore, the whole vehicle rigid-flexible coupling model of the passenger car was built up while taking into account the flexibility of the subframe. Meanwhile, the road test data was used to verify the validity of the dynamic model. On this basis, the modal displacement time histories of the subframe were calculated by a dynamic simulation on virtual proving ground consisting of Belgian blocks, cobblestone road and washboard road. By combining the modal displacement time histories with modal stress tensors getting from normal mode analysis, the dynamic stress time histories of the subframe were obtained through modal stress recovery method.
Journal Article

Optimization Matching of Powertrain System for Self-Dumping Truck Based on Grey Relational Analysis

In this paper, the performance simulation model of a domestic self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then its accuracy was checked by the power performance and fuel economy tests which were conducted on the proving ground. The power performance of the self-dumping truck was evaluated through standing start acceleration time from 0 to 70km/h, overtaking acceleration time from 60 to 70km/h, maximum speed and maximum gradeability, while the composite fuel consumption per hundred kilometers was taken as an evaluation index of fuel economy. A L9 orthogonal array was applied to investigate the effect of three matching factors including engine, transmission and final drive, which were considered at three levels, on the power performance and fuel economy of the self-dumping truck. Furthermore, the grey relational grade was proposed to assess the multiple performance responses according to the grey relational analysis.
Technical Paper

CAN Communication Applying on the Performance Evaluating of Electronic Brake System for Commercial Vehicle

In the performance evaluating of Electronic Brake System, conventional test methods have some inconvenience in existence. For example, the fixing of pressure sensors and wheel speed sensors is restrained by the installation position, and the precision of measuring is prone to be affected by the environment conditions. Since Electronic Brake System is featured by CAN (Controller Area Network) communication, special testing instrument can be connected with CAN bus, monitoring signals transmitting on the bus. This paper outlines the results of the study performed to analyze the application of CAN communication in the way of performance evaluation of Electronic Braking System.
Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation Research on Vehicle Ride Comfort

In this paper, a computer model of a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) is built to study vehicle ride comfort by multi-body system dynamic theory. Virtual test rigs are developed to perform natural body frequency tests and random road input tests on the complete vehicle multi-body dynamic model. By comparing simulation results with field test results, the accuracy of the model is validated and the feasibility of virtual test rigs is established.
Technical Paper

Impact Theory Based Total Cylinder Sampling System and its Application

A novel non-destroy repeatable-use impact theory based total cylinder sampling system has been established. This system is mainly composed of a knocking body and a sampling valve. The knocking body impacts the sampling valve with certain velocity resulting in huge force to open the sampling valve and most of the in-cylinder gas has been dumped to one sampling bag for after-treatment. The feasibility and sampling response characteristics of this impact theory based total cylinder sampling system were investigated by engine bench testing. Within 0 to 35°CA ATDC (Crank Angle After Top Dead Center) sample timing 50 percent to 80 percent of in-cylinder mass would be sampled, which was a little less compared with the traditional system. The half decay period of pressure drop was 10 to 20 degrees crank angle within 0 to 60°CA ATDC sample timing, which was about 2-3 times of the traditional system.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Occupant Posture Classification System using Seat Pressure Sensor for Intelligent Airbag

In the intelligent airbag system, the detection accuracy of occupant position is the precondition and plays a vital role to control airbag detonation time and inflated strength during the crash. Through accurately analyzing the seat surface pressure distributions of different occupant sitting position and types, an occupant position recognition approach which purely uses occupant pressure distribution information measured by seat pressure sensors is presented with the method of Support Vector Machine. In the end, the distribution samples with different occupant sitting position and types are used to train and test the recognition approach, and the good validity and accuracy are shown in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Suspension System of Self-Dumping Truck Using TOPSIS-based Taguchi Method Coupled with Entropy Measurement

This study presents a hybrid optimization approach of TOPSIS-based Taguchi method and entropy measurement for the determination of the optimal suspension parameters to achieve an enhanced compromise among ride comfort, road friendliness which means the extent of damage exerted on the road by the vehicles, and handling stabilities of a self-dumping truck. Firstly, the full multi-body dynamic vehicle model is developed using software ADAMS/Car and the vehicle model is then validated through ride comfort road tests. The performance criterion for ride comfort evaluation is identified as root mean square (RMS) value of frequency weighted acceleration of cab floor, while the road damage coefficient is used for the evaluation of the road-friendliness of a whole vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll angle of cab were defined as evaluation indices for handling stability performance.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Method for Evaluation of Seat Comfort Based on Virtual Simulation of the Interface Pressures of Driver with Different Body Sizes

This paper presents an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For simulation of the body-seat interaction and for calculation of the interface pressure, besides body dimensions and material characteristics an important aspect is the posture and position of the driver body with respect to seat. In addition, to ensure accommodation of the results to the target population usually several individuals are simulated, whose body anthropometries cover the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques are usually adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions. In biomechanical modeling of human body and seat, the correct element type, the rational settings of the contacts between different parts, the correct exertion of the loads to the calculation field, etc., are also crucial.
Technical Paper

Study on the Algorithm of Active Pressurization Control of Regenerative Braking System in Pure Electric Vehicle

During the vehicle braking, the Regenerative braking system (RBS) transforms the kinetic energy into electric power, storing it in the power sources. To secure the baking process, it is required to use hydraulic braking pressure to coordinately compensate the regenerative braking pressure. The traditional hydraulic pressure control algorithm which is used in regenerative braking system coordinated control has obvious laddering effect in braking. Unit control cycle pressure deviations seriously affect the comfort and the braking feeling on the vehicle.
Technical Paper

CATARC New Type Drivetrain NVH Test Facility

A vehicle’s NVH performance has a significant impact on the user experience of the driver and passengers. About one-third of the vehicle complaints are related to NVH performance. As the core component of the vehicle, the drivetrain’s NVH characteristics have a significant impact on vehicle comfort. How to reliably and stably reproduce the specific condition of the whole vehicle through the test method, and obtain the highly consistent objective data for analyzing and improving the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain is of great significance in engineering. For this purpose, China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd. (CATARC) designed and built a new type drivetrain NVH test facility, which consists of five dynamometers, and can carry horizontal/vertical, front/rear drive or four-wheel drive structures including powertrain, transmission, and rear axle, or even a whole vehicle.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Pressure Control and Parameter Optimization of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

A general principle scheme of IEHB (Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake system) is proposed, and the working principle of the system is simply introduced in this paper. Considering the structure characteristics of the hydraulic control unit of the system, a kind of time-sharing control strategy is adopted to realize the purpose of independent and precise hydraulic pressure regulation of each wheel brake cylinder in various brake conditions of a vehicle. Because of the strong nonlinear and time varying characteristics of the dynamic brake pressure regulation processes of IEHB, its comprehensive brake performance is mainly affected by temperature, humidity, load change, the structure and control parameters of IEHB, and so on.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

Braking Control Strategy Based on Electronically Controlled Braking System and Intelligent Network Technology

In order to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers, a braking control strategy based on Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) and intelligent network technology under non-emergency braking conditions is proposed. The controller utilizes the intelligent network technology’s characteristics of the workshop communication to obtain the driving environment information of the current vehicle firstly, and then calculate the optimal braking deceleration of the vehicle based on optimal control method. The strategy will distribute the braking force according to the ideal braking force distribution condition based on the EBS according to the braking deceleration; the braking force will be converted to braking pressure according to brake characteristics. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed, the strategy is verified under different initial speeds.