Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Optimisation of Precious Metal Loadings in Automotive Catalysts Using Response Surface Methodology

1996-10-01
961907
The effect of changing catalyst precious metal ratios and loadings on close coupled catalytic converter efficiencies has been studied. The three precious metals were platinum, palladium and rhodium. The specific matrix used for the development of response surface models is a central composite design and provides the capability of visually optimising the precious metal loadings. Catalysts were evaluated using perturbed scans. lightoff curves from the dynamometer aged, and vehicle emission tests. These scans show percent conversion efficiencies of the three legislated gases; HC, CO and NOx, over a range of Air Fuel Ratios (λ). Whilst lean and rich lightoff curves provide indications of conversion efficiencies at varying temperatures. Prior to testing the catalysts were aged, using an accelerated dynamometer ageing process, to 80K simulated kilometres. The catalysts were then fitted to a vehicle and chassis roll emission tests conducted.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in Lean Exhaust by Selective NOx-Recirculation (SNR-Technique) Part I: System and Decomposition Process

1998-10-19
982592
The SNR-technique is a new NOx aftertreatment system for lean burn gasoline and diesel applications. The objective of SNR is NOx removal from lean exhaust gas by NOx adsorption and subsequent selective external recirculation and decomposition of NOx in the combustion process. The SNR-project is composed of two major parts. Firstly the development of NOx adsorbents which are able to store large quantities of NOx in lean exhaust gas, and secondly the NOx decomposition by the combustion process. Emphasis of this paper is the investigation of NOx reduction in the combustion process, including experimental investigation and numerical simulation. The NOx decomposition process has been proven in diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines. Depending on the type of engine NOx-conversion rates up to 90 % have been observed. Regarding the complete SNR-system, including the efficiency of the adsorbing material and the NOx decomposition by the combustion, a NOx removal of more than 50% is achievable.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in Lean Exhaust by Selective NOx-Recirculation (SNR-Technique) Part II: NOx Storage Materials

1998-10-19
982593
Selective NOx recirculation (SNR), involving adsorption, selective external recirculation and decomposition of the NOx by the combustion process, is itself a promising technique to abate NOx emissions. Three types of materials containing Ba: barium aluminate, barium tin perovskite and barium Y-zeolites have been developed to adsorb NOx under lean-burn or Diesel conditions, with or without the presence of S02. All these materials adsorb NO2 selectively (lean-burn conditions), and store it as nitrate/nitrite species. The desorption takes place by decomposition of these species at higher temperatures. Nitrate formation implies also sulfate formation in the presence of SO2 and SO3, while the NO2/SO2 competition governs the poisoning of such catalysts.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Long Term Effects of Gasoline Sulphur Level on Three-Way Catalyst Activity

1995-10-01
952421
A test programme has been conducted to study any potential long term effects of gasoline sulphur on catalyst performance, using a newly developed transient engine-bed ageing cycle. The ageing cycle, which was based on repeated European Extra Urban Drive Cycles, was chosen to ensure that the catalyst experienced a realistically wide range of temperatures and space velocities, together with transients, idle and periods of overrun. Two nominally identical platinum/rhodium catalysts (manufactured from the same batch) with matched lambda sensors, were aged for a period of 80,000 km each, one being aged using a gasoline containing 50 mg/kg (ppm wt) sulphur, the other being aged on the same fuel doped to 450 ppm wt S. The emissions performance of both catalysts was measured after 6,000, 40,000 and 80,000 km ageing, by fitting the catalysts to a test vehicle, and performing emissions tests over the European test cycle at both sulphur levels.
Technical Paper

The Use of Palladium in Advanced Catalysts

1995-02-01
950259
New advanced Pd only, Pd:Rh and Pt:Pd:Rh catalysts are compared with a current platinum rhodium catalyst after poisoning and thermal ageing. The results indicate that at equivalent precious metal cost (at 1994 prices) the advanced palladium based catalysts achieve significantly improved performance compared with current Pt, Rh and Pd technology. The new Pd:Rh formulation is recommended for close coupled locations and the Pt:Pd:Rh formulation recommended for underfloor locations where residual fuel lead may be present. The formation of H2S is shown to be low with the palladium based catalysts. Finally, it is shown that the new catalysts with balanced oxidation and reduction capability perform better in multi-brick systems than addition of a highly loaded palladium only front brick.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Improvements to Meet European Stage III and ULEV Emissions Criteria

1996-02-01
960799
This paper describes the use of advanced three-way catalysts to meet future European and California low emissions legislation. Firstly, it describes the performance of these catalysts tested using the European Stage II test cycle and contrasts their emissions performance over the proposed European Stage III test. The future legislation requires fast catalyst light-off for the low emissions standards to be achieved, therefore the performance of close-coupled catalysts was investigated. The close-coupled catalyst systems gave very low emissions. Space constraints often preclude the use of large volume close-coupled catalysts, and the combination of a small starter catalyst with an underfloor catalyst was tested. This gave performance levels better than the close-coupled configuration. The effect of reducing the underfloor catalyst volume is also described. The work was carried out on a 1.2 litre European Vehicle, the conclusions were verified on a 1.6 litre European vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

1998-02-23
980936
The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Three-Way Catalyst Formulation on Sulphur Tolerance and Emissions from Gasoline Fuelled Vehicles

1994-03-01
940310
In a collaborative programme, the effects of gasoline sulphur content on regulated emissions from three-way catalyst equipped vehicles have been studied. The programme evaluated the sulphur tolerance of three different catalyst formulations on the same range of vehicles. The catalyst chemistries were chosen to be representative of typical current formulations in different markets, as follows: 1. Platinum/Rhodium (Pt/Rh) 2. Platinum/Rhodium/Nickel (Pt/Rh/Ni) 3. Palladium/Rhodium (Pd/Rh) Each vehicle/catalyst combination was tested with fuels containing sulphur at nominal levels of 50, 250 and 450 ppm weight. All fuels were produced using the low sulphur fuel as a base and doping to 250 and 450 ppm S with a mixture of nine sulphur compounds, typical of those actually occurring in European gasolines. The results show clear differences between the magnitudes of the sulphur effect with different catalyst formulations.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature Light-off Aftertreatment System for Meeting ULEV Emission Standards

1998-02-23
980421
It has long been recognized that the key to achieving stringent emission standards such as ULEV is the control of cold-start hydrocarbons. This paper describes a new approach for achieving excellent cold-start hydrocarbon control. The most important component in the system is a catalyst that is highly active at ambient temperature for the exothermic CO oxidation reaction in an exhaust stream under net lean conditions. This catalyst has positive order kinetics with respect to CO for CO oxidation. Thus, as the concentration of CO in the exhaust is increased, the rate of this reaction is increased, resulting in a faster temperature rise over the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter on Non-Regulated Emissions and Particle Size Distribution

1998-02-23
980189
The reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines is one of the most challenging problems associated with exhaust pollution control, second only to the control of NOx from any “lean burn” application. Particulate emissions can be controlled by adjustments to the combustion parameters of a diesel engine but these measures normally result in increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen. Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) hold out the prospect of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions and the task of actually removing the particles from the exhaust gas has been solved by the development of effective filtration materials. The question of the reliable regeneration of these filters in situ, however, remains a difficult hurdle. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from high engineering complexity and/or high energy demand. In addition some have special disadvantages under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Thermally Stable Pt/Rh Catalysts

1997-10-01
972909
The increasing severity in emission standards around the world has been accompanied by the development of more active, durable catalysts. With a view to investigating the effects of high thermal aging on the catalyst performance and structure, the relationships of washcoat composition, washcoat structure, and PGM location with respect to catalyst activity were clarified using a model gas test, as well as physical and chemical characterization methods. The influence of newly developed washcoat components and PGM location on catalyst performance are also demonstrated by engine bench tests. The results obtained in this study indicate the newly developed Pt/Rh catalyst techologies are appropriate for future applications in which the catalyst will be exposed to extremely high temperature and flowrates.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of NOx Storage Catalysts as an Effective System for NOx Removal from the Exhaust Gas of Leanburn Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952490
One possibility to improve the fuel economy of SI-engines is to run the engine with a lean air-fuel-ratio (AFR). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide after-treatment has been proven under lean operation, but NOx-control remains a challenge to catalyst and car manufacturers. One strategy that is being considered is to run the engine lean with occasional operation at stoichiometry. This would be in conjunction with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) to achieve stoichiometric conversion of the three main pollutants in the normal way and a NOx trap. The NOx trap stores NOx under lean operation to be released and reduced under rich conditions. The trap also functions as a TWC and has good HC and CO conversion at both lean and stoichiometric AFR's. Under lean conditions NO is oxidised to NO2 on Pt which is then adsorbed on an oxide surface. Typical adsorbent materials include oxides of potassium, calcium, zirconium, strontium, lanthanum, cerium and barium.
Technical Paper

Development of Test Methods for Lean-NOx Catalyst Evaluation

1995-10-01
952489
A test method, based on parallel sample testing with exhaust fuel injection and certain test procedures, has been developed for diesel lean-NOx catalyst evaluation purposes. The results of the verification tests show uniform distribution of both the exhaust gas and the injected fuel, and a high degree of fuel evaporation. Test procedures are discussed from several points of view. The test method offers a precise and efficient way of testing lean-NOx catalysts on heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Trap Technology for the Reduction of Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Emissions

1997-02-24
970741
The use of hydrocarbon traps to reduce cold-start emissions is one of the numerous methods that have been suggested to meet ULEV hydrocarbon emission requirements. To aid in our understanding of hydrocarbon traps and in the design of improved hydrocarbon trap systems, in-situ mass spectrometry has been used to speciate several hydrocarbons during the first 505 seconds of an FTP from the exhaust of a 2.0 L vehicle fitted with hydrocarbon traps in the after treatment system. This technique allows second-by-second engine-out and vehicle-out hydrocarbon speciation. The in-situ mass specrometry technique has shown that hydrocarbon traps are generally effective for trapping aromatics and C4+ alkanes and alkenes, but are ineffective in trapping methane, ethane, and ethene: Further improvements in the trapping performance for C3-C5 hydrocarbons can be made by placing a water trap in front of the hydrocarbon trap.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Sulfur Level on FTP Emissions - Effect of PGM Catalyst Type

1997-02-24
970737
With the advent of stricter vehicle emission standards, the improvement of three way catalyst performance and durability remains a pressing issue. A critical consideration in catalyst design is the potential for variations in fuel sulfur levels to have a significant impact on the ability to reach TLEV, LEV, and ULEV emission levels. As a result, a better understanding of the role of PGM composition in the interplay between thermal durability and sulfur tolerance is required. Three way catalysts representative of standard Pd-only, Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh formulations were studied over a variety of aging and evaluation conditions. The parameters investigated included aging temperature, air fuel ratio and sulfur level. Evaluations were performed on a 1994 TLEV vehicle using different sulfur level fuels. The effect of PGM loading was also included within the study.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Diesel Exhaust

1996-10-01
962042
Reduction of nitrogen oxides in Diesel exhaust gas is a challenging task. This paper reports results from an extensive study using Pt-based catalysts involving synthetic gas activity testing (SCAT), engine bench testing and tests on passenger cars. Preliminary SCAT work highlighted the importance of Pt-dispersion, and both SCAT and bench engine testing yielded comparable NOx conversions under steady state conditions at high HC:NOx ratios. On passenger cars in the European cycle without secondary fuel injection NOx conversion was lower than obtained in the steady state tests. Better conversion was obtained in the FTP cycle, where secondary injection was employed. Higher HC:NOx, ratios and more favourable temperature conditions which were present in the exhaust contributed to this higher conversion.
Technical Paper

Comparison of De-NOx and Adsorber Catalysts to Reduce NOx - Emissions of Lean Burn Gasoline Engines

1996-10-01
962046
A comparison of two different types of NOx reducing catalysts will be worked out. The potential of two De-NOx catalysts using engine out hydrocarbon emissions for NOx conversion will be shown by variation of different engine parameters. An analysis of the hydrocarbon species upstream and downstream catalyst will demonstrate, which components are responsible for the NOx reduction in the exhaust gas of a lean burn engine. By variation of different parameters during adsorbtion and regeneration phases of the adsorber catalyst the efficiency in NOx reduction will be optimized. An assessment of the suitability for lean burn engines will consider the emission reduction efficiency as well as the influence on engine fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Nickel-Free Hydrogen Sulfide Control Technology for European Applications

1993-03-01
930777
In the USA, hydrogen sulfide emissions from three-way catalytic converter-equipped automobiles are effectively suppressed by the addition of nickel to catalyst formulations. This approach is generally not utilized in catalyst formulations for Europe because of European concern about the health, safety and environmental issues surrounding the use of nickel. A modified form of iron oxide has been identified which suppresses hydrogen sulfide emissions from three-way catalysts. This suppression has been achieved without affecting the fresh or aged performance of the catalyst, a problem often encountered with other materials. The performance and durability of catalyst formulations incorporating the new material are demonstrated with a variety of aging and evaluation protocols.
Technical Paper

The Design of Flow-Through Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1993-03-01
930130
Progress made in reducing engine-out particulate emissions has prompted a revival in the design of flow-through oxidation catalysts for diesel engine applications. Effort in this area has focused primarily in the area of SOF control for the further reduction of particulate emissions. The work reported here covers some of the catalyst design parameters important for SOF and gas phase pollutant control. This is illustrated with both laboratory reactor and engine evaluation data for several formulary and operating parameters. Platinum-based catalysts are shown to be generally the most active, but they require treatments or additives to reduce the inherently high activity of platinum for the oxidation of SO2 present in the exhaust. The effect of additives and their loading on the oxidation activity of Pt/alumina for HC, CO, SOF and SO2 oxidation is discussed in detail and additives are identified which reduce SO2 oxidation with minimal effect on HC, CO or SOF oxidation activity.
X