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Technical Paper

Pressure Amplitude Influence on Pulsating Exhaust Flow Energy Utilization

2018-04-03
2018-01-0972
A turbocharged Diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Speed Estimation via Vibration Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0632
Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Natural Gas Engine for CO2 reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0875
With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of On-Engine Surge Detection Algorithms using Knock Accelerometers

2017-10-08
2017-01-2420
On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
Technical Paper

Surge Detection Using Knock Sensors in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0050
Improving turbocharger performance to increase engine efficiency has the potential to help meet current and upcoming exhaust legislation. One limiting factor is compressor surge, an air flow instability phenomenon capable of causing severe vibration and noise. To avoid surge, the turbocharger is operated with a safety margin (surge margin) which, as well as avoiding surge in steady state operation, unfortunately also lowers engine performance. This paper investigates the possibility of detecting compressor surge with a conventional engine knock sensor. It further recommends a surge detection algorithm based on their signals during transient engine operation. Three knock sensors were mounted on the turbocharger and placed along the axes of three dimensions of movement. The engine was operated in load steps starting from steady state. The steady state points of operation covered the vital parts of the engine speed and load range.
Technical Paper

Pressure Ratio Influence on Exhaust Valve Flow Coefficients

2017-03-28
2017-01-0530
In one dimensional engine simulation software, flow losses over complex geometries such as valves and ports are described using flow coefficients. It is generally assumed that the pressure ratio over the valve has a negligible influence on the flow coefficient. However during the exhaust valve opening the pressure difference between cylinder and port is large which questions the accuracy of this assumption. In this work the influence of pressure ratio on the exhaust valve flow coefficient has been investigated experimentally in a steady-flow test bench. Two cylinder heads, designated A and B, from a Heavy-Duty engine with different valve shapes and valve seat angles have been investigated. The tests were performed with both exhaust valves open and with only one of the two exhaust valves open. The pressure ratio over the exhaust port was varied from 1.1:1 to 5:1. For case A1 with a single exhaust valve open, the flow coefficient decreased significantly with pressure ratio.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Turbocharger Compressor Surge Margin Using a Hurst-Exponent-based Criterion

2016-04-05
2016-01-1027
Turbocharger compressors are limited in their operating range at low mass flows by compressor surge, thus restricting internal combustion engine operation at low engine speeds and high mean effective pressures. Since the exact location of the surge line in the compressor map depends on the whole gas exchange system, a safety margin towards surge must be provided. Accurate early surge detection could reduce this margin. During surge, the compressor outlet pressure fluctuates periodically. The Hurst exponent of the compressor outlet pressure is applied in this paper as an indicator to evaluate how close to the surge limit the compressor operates. It is a measure of the time-series memory that approaches zero for anti-persistence of the time series. That is, a Hurst exponent close to zero means a high statistical preference that a high value is followed by a low value, as during surge.
Journal Article

Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-1046
Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Journal Article

Semi-Empirical CFD Transient Simulation of Engine Air Filtration Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-1368
To improve fuel efficiency and facilitate handling of the vehicle in a dense city environment, it should be as small as possible given its intended application. This downsizing trend impacts the size of the engine bay, where the air filter box has to be packed in a reduced space, still without increased pressure drop, reduced load capacity nor lower filtering efficiency. Due to its flexibility and reduced cost, CFD simulations play an important role in the optimization process of the filter design. Even though the air-flow through the filter box changes as the dust load increases, the current modeling framework seldom account for such time dependence. Volvo Car Corporation presents an industrial affordable model to solve the time-dependent dust load on filter elements and calculate the corresponding flow behavior over the life time of the air filter box.
Technical Paper

Particle Emission Measurements in a SI CNG Engine Using Oils with Controlled Ash Content

2019-01-15
2019-01-0053
Clean combustion is one of the inherent benefits of using a high methane content fuel, natural gas or biogas. A single carbon atom in the fuel molecule results, to a large extent, in particle-free combustion. This is due to the high energy required for binding multiple carbon atoms together during the combustion process, required to form soot particles. When scaling up this process and applying it in the internal combustion engine, the resulting emissions from the engine have not been observed to be as particle free as the theory on methane combustion indicates. These particles stem from the combustion of engine oil and its ash content. One common practice has been to lower the ash content to regulate the particulate emissions, as was done for diesel engines. For a gas engine, this approach has been difficult to apply, as the piston and valvetrain lubrication becomes insufficient.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Exhaust Valve Flow 1-D Modelling During Blowdown Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0058
To conduct system level studies on internal combustion engines reduced order models are required in order to keep the computational load below reasonable limits. By its nature a reduced order model is a simplification of reality and may introduce modeling errors. However what is of interest is the size of the error and if it is possible to reduce the error by some method. A popular system level study is gas exchange and in this paper the focus is on the exhaust valve. Generally the valve is modeled as an ideal nozzle where the flow losses are captured by reducing the flow area. As the valve moves slowly compared to the flow the process is assumed to be quasi-steady, i.e. interpolation between steady-flow measurements can be used to describe the dynamic process during valve opening. These measurements are generally done at low pressure drops, as the influence of pressure ratio is assumed to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Variation in Squish Length and Swirl to Reach Higher Levels of EGR in a CNG Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0081
Gaseous methane fuel for internal combustion engines have proved to be a competitive source of propulsion energy for heavy duty truck engines. Using biogas can even reduce the carbon footprint of the truck to near-zero levels, creating fully environmentally friendly transport. Gas engines have already been on the market and proved to be a popular alternative for buses and waste transport. However, for long haulage these gas engines have not been on par with the equivalent diesel engines. To improve the power and efficiency of EURO VI gas engines running stoichiometrically, a direct way forward is adding more boost pressure and spark advance in combination with more EGR to mitigate knock. Using in-cylinder turbulence to achieve higher mixing rate, the fuel can still be combusted efficiently despite the increased fraction of inert gases.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in Piston Cooling Galleries

2018-09-10
2018-01-1776
Piston cooling galleries are critical for the pistons’ capability to handle increasing power density while maintaining the same level of durability. However, piston cooling also accounts for a considerable amount of heat rejection and parasitic losses. Knowing the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside the cooling gallery could enable new designs which ensure effective cooling of areas decisive for durability while minimizing parasitic losses and overall heat rejection. In this study, an inverse heat transfer method is presented to determine the spatial HTC distribution inside the cooling gallery based on surface temperature measurements with an infrared (IR) camera. The method utilizes a piston specially machined so it only has a thin sheet of material of a known thickness left between the cooling gallery and the piston bowl. The piston - initially at room temperature - is heated up with warm oil injected into the cooling gallery.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Engine Intake Manifold Pressure Virtual Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-1170
Increasing demands for more efficient engines and stricter legislations on exhaust emissions require more accurate control of the engine operating parameters. Engine control is based on sensors monitoring the condition of the engine. Numerous sensors, in a complex control context, increase the complexity, the fragility and the cost of the system. An alternative to physical sensors are virtual sensors, observers used to monitor parameters of the engine thus reducing both the fragility and the production cost but with a slight increase of the complexity. In the current paper a virtual intake manifold cylinder port pressure sensor is presented. The virtual sensor is based on a compressible flow model and on the pressure signal of the intake manifold pressure sensor. It uses the linearized pressure coefficient approach to keep vital performance behaviors while still conserving calibration effort and embedded system memory.
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