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Technical Paper

Contaminants Affecting the Formation of Soft Particles in Bio-Based Diesel Fuels during Degradation

Renewable fuels are essential in the field of heavy duty transportation if we are to reach a fossil-free society in the foreseeable future. However renewable diesel fuels based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) might face problems with degradation and with cold flow properties. From the perspective of an engine, this may cause problems in the fuel injection system, such as fuel filter clogging and injector deposits. These phenomena, especially fuel filter clogging, can be connected to gel-like soft particles, which could originate from degradation products as well as from byproducts created during biodiesel refining. In this study, soft particles from the degradation of bio-based diesel fuel were examined. The tested fuels included hydrogenated vegetable oils (HVO), rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and 10% blend of rapeseed methyl ester with standard diesel (B10).
Technical Paper

Agglomeration and Nucleation of Non-Volatile Particles in a Particle Grouping Exhaust Pipe of a Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The possibility of non-volatile particle agglomeration in engine exhaust was experimentally examined in a Euro VI heavy duty engine using a variable cross section agglomeration pipe, insulated and double walled for minimal thermophoresis. The agglomeration pipe was located between the turbocharger and the exhaust treatment devices. Sampling was made across the pipe and along the centre-line of the agglomeration pipe. The performance of the agglomeration pipe was compared with an equivalent insulated straight pipe. The non-volatile total particle number and size distribution were investigated. Particle number measurements were conducted according to the guidelines from the Particle Measurement Programme. The Engine was fuelled with commercially available low sulphur S10 diesel.