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Technical Paper

A CAD-Driven Flexible Forming System for Three-Dimensional Sheet Metal Parts

A novel system for the forming of three dimensional sheet metal parts is described that can form a variety of part shapes without the need for fixed tooling, and given only geometry (CAD) information about the desired part. The central elements of this system are a tooling concept based on a programmable discrete die surface and closed-loop shape control. The former give the process the degrees of freedom to change shape rapidly, and the latter is used to insure that the correct shape is formed with a minimum of forming trials. A 540 kN (60 ton) lab press has been constructed with a 0.3 m (12 in) square pair of discrete tools that can be rapidly re-shaped between forming trials. The shape control system uses measured part shapes to determine a shape error and to correct the tooling shape. This correction is based on a unique “Deformation Transfer Function” approach using a spatial frequency decomposition of the surface.
Technical Paper

An EVA Mission Planning Tool based on Metabolic Cost Optimization

An extravehicular activity (EVA) path-planning and navigation tool, called the Mission Planner, has been developed to assist with pre-mission planning, scenario simulation, real-time navigation, and contingency replanning during astronaut EVAs, The Mission Planner calculates the most efficient path between user-specified waypoints. Efficiency is based on an exploration cost algorithm, which is a function of the estimated astronaut metabolic rate. Selection of waypoints and visualization of the generated path are realized within a 3D mapping interface through terrain elevation models. The Mission Planner is also capable of computing the most efficient path back home from any point along the path.
Technical Paper

Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 26262

The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety. We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration. In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.
Technical Paper

Improving Subjective Assessment of Vehicle Dynamics Evaluations by means of Computer-Tablets as Digital Aid

Vehicle dynamics development relies on subjective assessments (SA), which is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert drivers and vehicles. Furthermore, development projects becoming shorter and more complex, and increasing demands on quality require higher efficiency. Most research in this area has focused on moving from physical to virtual testing. However, SA remains the central method. Less attention has been given to provide better tools for the SA process itself. One promising approach is to introduce computer-tablets to aid data collection, which has proven to be useful in medical studies. Simple software solutions can eliminate the need to transcribe data and generate more flexible and better maintainable questionnaires. Tablets’ technical features envision promising enhancements of SA, which also enable better correlations to objective metrics, a requirement to improve CAE evaluations.
Technical Paper

Alternative Tooling Technologies for Low Volume Stamping

Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
Technical Paper

Application of Model Fuels to Engine Simulation

To address the growing need for detailed chemistry in engine simulations, new software tools and validated data sets are being developed under an industry-funded consortium involving members from the automotive and fuels industry. The results described here include systematic comparison and validation of detailed chemistry models using a wide range of fundamental experimental data, and the development of software tools that support the use of detailed mechanisms in engineering simulations. Such tools include the automated reduction of reaction mechanisms for targeted simulation conditions. Selected results are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Sustainment Measures for Fighter Jet Engines

The US Air Force (USAF) has evolved a policy for the acquisition of fighter jet engines (FJE). In the 1970s and 1980s that policy placed a premium on FJE performance primarily measured by the metric: thrust/engine weight. In the 1990s, the USAF policy changed from an emphasis on performance to reduced life-cycle cost with a premium on sustainment. This paper reports the results of a study of how the USAF and Corporation Alpha (Alpha) have adapted their processes, practices, and policies to design, develop, manufacture, test, and sustain a family of FJEs. Each member of the family of FJEs is sequentially linked relative to insertion of technology designed to reduce sustainment costs. In addition to the technology linkages, the development of the family of FJEs selected for this case study is also tracked relative to US Department of Defense and USAF policy and industry design, build, and maintain processes, methods, and tools.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Closed Shape Within a Flexible Band, Free-Shape and Force in Circular Bore Study

A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This paper describes the free-shape, force in circular bore and closed shape within a flexible band (ovality) related parts. Knowing any one of these distributions, this model determines the other two. This tool is useful in the sense that the characterization of the ring is carried out by measuring its closed shape within a flexible band which is more accurate than measuring its free shape or force distribution in circular bore. Thus, having a model that takes the closed shape within a flexible band as an input is more convenient and useful based on the experiments carried out to characterize the ring.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Working Engine Conditions Study

A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This tool is able to characterize the behavior of a ring with any cross section design. This paper describes the conformability and ring static twist calculation. The conformability part model the static behavior of the ring in working engine conditions. The model employs the computation scheme that separates the meshing of the structure and local force generation. Additional to the conventional static ring-bore conformability analysis, the conformability model is designed to examine ring-bore and ring-groove interactions in a running engine under varying driving forces and localized lubrication conditions. We made Improvements on the way to handle the effects of the radial temperature gradient compared to the existing models. Examples are given on the effects of ring rotation on the interaction of the ring and a distorted bore as well as the change of local lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

A Steady-State Based Investigation of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor Noise

The challenging problem of noise generation and propagation in automotive turbocharging systems is of real interest from both scientific and practical points of view. Robust and fast steady-state fluid flow calculations, complemented by acoustic analogies can represent valuable tools to be used for a quick assessment of the problem during e.g. design phase, and a starting point for more in-depth future unsteady calculations. Thus, as a part of the initial phase of a long-term project, a steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow analysis is carried out for a specific automotive turbocharger compressor geometry. Acoustic data are extracted by means of aeroacoustics models available within the framework of the STAR-CCM+ solver (i.e. Curle and Proudman acoustic analogies, respectively).
Journal Article

Engine Friction Accounting Guide and Development Tool for Passenger Car Diesel Engines

The field of automotive engineering has devoted much research to reduce fuel consumption to attain sustainable energy usage. Friction reductions in powertrain components can improve engine fuel economy. Quantitative accounting of friction is complex because it is affected by many physical aspects such as oil viscosity, temperature, surface roughness and component rotation speed. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to develop a useful tool for evaluating the friction in engine and accessories based on test data; second, to exercise the tool to evaluate the fuel economy gain in a drive cycle for several friction reduction technologies.