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Technical Paper

Inverse Method for Measuring Weld Temperatures during Resistance Spot Welding

A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding Lobe Curve

A linearized lumped parameter heat balance model was developed and is discussed for the general case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material properties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current, and electrical and thermal contact characteristics. These are then related to heat dissipation in the electrodes and the work piece. The results indicate that the ratio of thermal conductivity and heat capacity to electrical resistivity is a characteristic number which is representative of the ease of spot weldability of a given material. The increases in thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the sheet metal increase the lobe width while increases in electrical resistivity decrease the lobe width. Inconsistencies in the weldability of thin sheets and the wider lobe width at long welding times can both be explained by the heat dissipation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Structural, Volume and Pressure Components to Space Suit Joint Rigidity

Gas-pressurized space suits are highly resistive to astronaut movement, and this resistance has been previously explained by volume and/or structural effects. This study proposed that an additional effect, pressure effects due to compressing/expanding the internal gas during joint articulation, also inhibits mobility. EMU elbow torque components were quantified through hypobaric testing. Structural effects dominated at low joint angles, and volume effects were found to be the primary torque component at higher angles. Pressure effects were found to be significant only at high joint angles (increased flexion), contributing up to 8.8% of the total torque. These effects are predicted to increase for larger, multi-axis joints. An active regulator system was developed to mitigate pressure effects, and was found to be capable of mitigating repeated pressure spikes caused by volume changes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Blockage Effects on Heavy Trucks in Full Scale Test Conditions

The effect of blockage due to the presence of the wind tunnel walls has been known since the early days of wind tunnel testing. Today there are several blockage correction methods available for correcting the measured aerodynamic drag. Due to the shape of the test object, test conditions and wind tunnel dimensions the effect on the flow may be different for two cab variants. This will result in a difference in the drag delta between so-called open-road conditions and the wind tunnel. This makes it more difficult to evaluate the performance of two different test objects when they are both tested in a wind tunnel and simulated in CFD. A numerical study where two different cab shapes were compared in both open road condition, and in a digital wind tunnel environment was performed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis on the ‘Exact’ Cremer Impedance in Rectangular Ducts

Cremer impedance, first proposed by Cremer (Acustica 3, 1953) and then improved by Tester (JSV 28, 1973), refers to the locally reacting boundary condition that can maximize the attenuation of a certain acoustic mode in a uniform waveguide. One limitation in Tester’s work is that it simplified the analysis on the effect of flow by only considering high frequencies or the ‘well cut-on’ modes. This approximation is reasonable for large duct applications, e.g., aero-engines, but not for many other cases of interest, with the vehicle intake and exhaust system included. A recent modification done by Kabral et al. (Acta Acustica united with Acustica 102, 2016) has removed this limitation and investigated the ‘exact’ solution of Cremer impedance for circular waveguides, which reveals an appreciable difference between the exact and classic solution in the low frequency range. Consequently, the exact solution can lead to a much higher low-frequency attenuation level.
Journal Article

Study on Energy Loss due to Cornering Resistance in Over-Actuated Vehicles using Optimal Control

As vehicles become electrified and more intelligent in terms of sensing, actuation and processing; a number of interesting possibilities arise in controlling vehicle dynamics and driving behavior. Over-actuation with in- wheel motors, all wheel steering and active camber is one such possibility, which facilitate the control strategies that push boundaries in energy consumption and safety. Optimal control can be used to investigate the best combinations of control inputs to an over-actuated system. This paper shows how an optimal control problem can be formulated and solved for an over-actuated vehicle case, and highlights the translation of this optimal solution to a real-world scenario, enabling intelligent means to improve vehicle efficiency. This paper gives an insight into Dynamic Programming (DP) as an offline optimal control method that guarantees the global optimum.
Journal Article

Effects of Ethanol Content on Gasohol PFI Engine Wide-Open-Throttle Operation

The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with λ =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due to fuel evaporation. The decrease in NOx emission and exhaust temperature could be explained by the change in adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture. The fuel knock resistance improved significantly with the gasohol so that ignition could be timed at a value much closer or at MBT timing. Changing from 0% to 100% ethanol in the fuel, this combustion phasing improvement led to a 20% increase in NIMEP and 8 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency at 1500 rpm. At 2000 rpm, where knocking was less severe, the improvement was about half (10% increase in NIMEP and 4 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency).