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Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

1995-09-01
952146
In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Observed Differences in Lane Departure Warning Responses during Single-Task and Dual-Task Driving: A Secondary Analysis of Field Driving Data

2016-04-05
2016-01-1425
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an increasingly common feature of modern vehicles. The influence of such systems on driver behavior, particularly in regards to the effects of intermittent warning systems, is sparsely studied to date. This paper examines dynamic changes in physiological and operational behavior during lane departure warnings (LDW) in two commercial automotive systems utilizing on-road data. Alerts from the systems, one using auditory and the other haptic LDWs, were monitored during highway driving conditions. LDW events were monitored during periods of single-task driving and dual-task driving. Dual-task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s factory infotainment system or a smartphone to perform secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Robust Driver Gaze Classification

2016-04-05
2016-01-1426
The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
Technical Paper

Additional Findings on the Multi-Modal Demands of “Voice-Command” Interfaces

2016-04-05
2016-01-1428
This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
Technical Paper

Improving Subjective Assessment of Vehicle Dynamics Evaluations by means of Computer-Tablets as Digital Aid

2016-04-05
2016-01-1629
Vehicle dynamics development relies on subjective assessments (SA), which is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert drivers and vehicles. Furthermore, development projects becoming shorter and more complex, and increasing demands on quality require higher efficiency. Most research in this area has focused on moving from physical to virtual testing. However, SA remains the central method. Less attention has been given to provide better tools for the SA process itself. One promising approach is to introduce computer-tablets to aid data collection, which has proven to be useful in medical studies. Simple software solutions can eliminate the need to transcribe data and generate more flexible and better maintainable questionnaires. Tablets’ technical features envision promising enhancements of SA, which also enable better correlations to objective metrics, a requirement to improve CAE evaluations.
Technical Paper

New Demands from an Older Population: An Integrated Approach to Defining the Future of Older Driver Safety

2006-10-16
2006-21-0008
The nearly 77 million baby boomers, born between 1946 and 1964, can say that they are the automobile generation. Now turning 60 one every seven seconds, what are the new safety challenges and opportunities posed by the next generation of older adults? This paper presents a modified Haddon matrix to identify key product development, design and liability issues confronting the automobile industry and related stakeholders. The industry is now at a critical juncture to address the development of key technological innovations as well as the changing policy and liability environments being reshaped by an aging population.
Technical Paper

A Driver Behavior Recognition Method Based on a Driver Model Framework

2000-03-06
2000-01-0349
A method for detecting drivers' intentions is essential to facilitate operating mode transitions between driver and driver assistance systems. We propose a driver behavior recognition method using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterize and detect driving maneuvers and place it in the framework of a cognitive model of human behavior. HMM-based steering behavior models for emergency and normal lane changes as well as for lane keeping were developed using a moving base driving simulator. Analysis of these models after training and recognition tests showed that driver behavior modeling and recognition of different types of lane changes is possible using HMMs.
Journal Article

Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft

2011-10-18
2011-01-2495
The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport aircraft. The sensitivities of energy efficiency to recent and forecast technology developments are also examined.
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