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Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Gear Shifting and Torque Split for Improved Fuel Efficiency and Drivability of HEVs

Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles has been an active research topic in recent years. Vehicles with alternative powertrain systems, especially hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), have shown significant reduction in fuel consumption and emissions, and therefore have attracted many researchers to this field. The focus is usually on the development of optimal power management control methods. For parallel HEVs, the primary control variable is the torque split between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor. More advanced approaches also simultaneously search for the optimal gear number and engine on/off state, which can further reduce the fuel consumption but also complicate the problem. In the literature on HEVs, the emphasis is typically only on fuel efficiency and sometimes the emissions. The drivability of the vehicle is usually not considered during the optimization process.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Base Oil Viscosity Temperature Dependence For Power Cylinder Friction Reduction

Lubricant viscosity along the engine cylinder liner varies by an order of magnitude due to local temperature variation and vaporization effects. Tremendous potential exists for fuel economy improvement by optimizing local viscosity variations for specific operating conditions. Methods for analytical estimation of friction and wear in the power-cylinder system are reviewed and used to quantify opportunities for improving mechanical efficiency and fuel economy through lubricant formulation tailored specifically to liner temperature distributions. Temperature dependent variations in kinematic viscosity, density, shear thinning, and lubricant composition are investigated. Models incorporating the modified Reynolds equation were used to estimate friction and wear under the top ring and piston skirt of a typical 11.0 liter diesel engine.
Journal Article

Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft

The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport aircraft. The sensitivities of energy efficiency to recent and forecast technology developments are also examined.
Journal Article

Semi-Empirical CFD Transient Simulation of Engine Air Filtration Systems

To improve fuel efficiency and facilitate handling of the vehicle in a dense city environment, it should be as small as possible given its intended application. This downsizing trend impacts the size of the engine bay, where the air filter box has to be packed in a reduced space, still without increased pressure drop, reduced load capacity nor lower filtering efficiency. Due to its flexibility and reduced cost, CFD simulations play an important role in the optimization process of the filter design. Even though the air-flow through the filter box changes as the dust load increases, the current modeling framework seldom account for such time dependence. Volvo Car Corporation presents an industrial affordable model to solve the time-dependent dust load on filter elements and calculate the corresponding flow behavior over the life time of the air filter box.
Technical Paper

A Test Rig for Evaluating Thermal Cyclic Life and Effectiveness of Thermal Barrier Coatings inside Exhaust Manifolds

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) may be used on the inner surfaces of exhaust manifolds in heavy-duty diesel engines to improve the fuel efficiency and prolong the life of the component. The coatings need to have a long thermal cyclic life and be able to reduce the temperature in the substrate material. Lower temperature of the substrate material reduces the oxidation rate and has a positive influence on the thermo-mechanical fatigue life. A test rig for evaluating these properties for several different coatings simultaneously in the correct environment has been developed and tested for two different TBCs and one oxidation resistant coating. Exhausts have been redirected from a diesel engine and led through a series of coated pipes. These pipes have been thermally cycled by alternating the temperature of the exhausts. Initial damage in the form of cracks within the top coats of the TBCs was found after cycling 150 times between 50°C and 530°C.
Technical Paper

Future Fuels for DISI Engines: A Review on Oxygenated, Liquid Biofuels

Global warming and climate change have led to a greater interest in the implementation of biofuels in internal combustion engines. In spark ignited engines, biofuels have been shown to improve efficiency and knock resistance while decreasing emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particles. This study investigates the effect of biofuels on SI engine combustion through a graphical compilation of previously reported results. Experimental data from 88 articles were used to evaluate the trends of the addition of different biofuels in gasoline. Graphs illustrating engine performance, combustion phasing and emissions are presented in conjunction with data on the physiochemical properties of each biofuel component to understand the observed trends. Internal combustion engines have the ability to handle a wide variety of fuels resulting in a broad range of biofuel candidates.
Journal Article

Effects of Ethanol Content on Gasohol PFI Engine Wide-Open-Throttle Operation

The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with λ =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due to fuel evaporation. The decrease in NOx emission and exhaust temperature could be explained by the change in adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture. The fuel knock resistance improved significantly with the gasohol so that ignition could be timed at a value much closer or at MBT timing. Changing from 0% to 100% ethanol in the fuel, this combustion phasing improvement led to a 20% increase in NIMEP and 8 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency at 1500 rpm. At 2000 rpm, where knocking was less severe, the improvement was about half (10% increase in NIMEP and 4 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency).