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Technical Paper

Development of the Kettering University Snowmobile for the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2009-11-03
2009-32-0177
Affordable clean snowmobile technology has been developed. The goals of this design included reducing exhaust emissions to levels which are below the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 standard. Additionally, noise levels were to be reduced to below the noise mandates of 78 dB(A). Further, this snowmobile can operate using any blend of gasoline and ethanol from E0 to E85. Finally, achieving these goals would be a hollow victory if the cost and performance of the snowmobile were severely compromised. Snowmobiling is, after all, a recreational sport; thus the snowmobile must remain fun to drive and cost effective to produce. The details of this design effort including performance data are discussed in this paper. Specifically, the effort to modify a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine is described. This snowmobile was modified to run on a range of ethanol blended fuels using a closed-loop engine control system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Airflow Induced Whistle Noise by HVAC Control Doors Utilizing a ‘V-Shape’ Rubber Seal

2011-05-17
2011-01-1615
Doors inside an automotive HVAC module are essential components to ensure occupant comfort by controlling the cabin temperature and directing the air flow. For temperature control, the function of a door is not only to close/block the airflow path via the door seal that presses against HVAC wall, but also control the amount of hot and cold airflow to maintain cabin temperature. To meet the stringent OEM sealing requirement while maintaining a cost-effective product, a “V-Shape” soft rubber seal is commonly used. However, in certain conditions when the door is in the position other than closed which creates a small gap, this “V-Shape” seal is susceptible to the generation of objectionable whistle noise for the vehicle passengers. This nuisance can easily reduce end-customer satisfaction to the overall HVAC performance.
Technical Paper

Blind-Spot Detection and Avoidance Utilizing In-Vehicle Haptic Feedback Force Feedback

2011-04-12
2011-01-0556
Steer-by-wire is a system where there are no mechanical connections between the steering wheel and the tires. With the inception of electric and hybrid cars, steer-by-wire is becoming more common. A steer-by-wire car opens many opportunities for additional feedback on the steering wheel. Providing haptic feedback through the steering wheel will add additional depth and capabilities to make the driving experience safer. In this paper we investigated the effects of force feedback on the steering wheel in order to detect and/or avoid blind spot collisions. Two types of force feedback are examined using a driving simulator: a rumble and a counter steering force. A rumble on the steering wheel can avoid blind-spot accidents by providing feedback to drivers about vehicles in their blind spots. Providing counter steering force feedback can help in the reduction in blind-spot accidents. The results show that adding counter steering force feedback did reduce blind-spot related collisions.
Technical Paper

Design, Analysis, and Development Testing of Large Hood Plastic Mounted Trim Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0490
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Very Low Particulate Mass Emissions Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1557
Pending reductions in light duty vehicle PM emissions standards from 10 to 3 mg/mi and below will push the limits of the gravimetric measurement method. At these levels the PM mass collected approaches the mass of non-particle gaseous species that adsorb onto the filter from exhaust and ambient air. This introduces an intrinsic lower limit to filter based measurement that is independent of improvements achieved in weighing metrology. The statistical variability of back-up filter measurements at these levels makes them an ineffective means for correcting the adsorption artifact. The proposed subtraction of a facility based estimate of the artifact will partially alleviate the mass bias from adsorption, but its impact on weighing variability remains a problem that can reach a significant fraction of the upcoming 3 and future 1 mg/mi standards. This paper proposes an improved PM mass method that combines the gravimetric filter approach with real time aerosol measurement.
Technical Paper

Child Restraint Systems: Top Tether Effectiveness in Side Impact Collisions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0601
Use of the top tether attachment in three commonly available anchor points provides added restraint of child restraint systems (CRS). Three tether attachment positions were used; floor, behind the head rest (parcel deck) and at the ceiling. The three anchor points are comparable in efficacy while no tether allows increased travel of the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) head. Two series of six tests were conducted at a max speed of 20 mph and peak deceleration of 16 G's using a deceleration sled test apparatus. The first series of tests was conducted at a 90 degree impact angle. On average there is 9% less head travel when using the tether attachment compared to not using the tether attachment, all other conditions begin equal. The second series of tests was conducted at a 73 degree impact angle, there is 15% less head travel when using the tether attachment compared to not using the tether attachment, all other conditions begin equal.
Journal Article

Lean Implementation in Integrated Design and Manufacturing

2013-04-08
2013-01-1329
Lean applications in product development usually start with manufacturing due to the relative experience of measuring improvements and identifying wastes in physical settings. The full potential of lean implementation in any product development, however, can only be realized when applied throughout the process, starting with early process. Considering that the first and most essential principle in lean implementation is the characterization of value from the customer's perspective, it is imperative that the proper definition of value is realized at the beginning of the process. In addition, streaming and flowing of this customer's specified value should be realized throughout the process from start to finish. This paper discusses the application of lean principles to integrated design and manufacturing phases of the Product Development Process.
Journal Article

Design and Control of Vehicle Trailer with Onboard Power Supply

2015-04-14
2015-01-0132
Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer's power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept's feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer's single drive wheel, which allow us to dispense with the need for a differential.
Technical Paper

Development of Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol

2007-10-30
2007-32-0114
Kettering University has developed a cleaner and quieter snowmobile using technologies and innovative methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Further, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. A number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. This paper provides details of the snowmobile development the results of these efforts on performance and emissions. Specifically, the Kettering University snowmobile achieved reductions of approximately 72% in CO, and 98% in HC+NOx when compared with the 2012 standard. Further, the snowmobile achieved a drive by noise level of 73 dbA while operating on hard packed snow.
Technical Paper

State Space Formulation by Bond Graph Models for Vehicle System Dynamics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0430
Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Journal Article

Task and Message Scheduling for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Functional Unit

2008-04-14
2008-01-0480
A Task and Message Schedule for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric vehicle (HEV) functional unit is described. The resulting schedule is a component of an incremental message and task scheduling approach based on a time-driven message schedule and priority-driven task schedule. The HEV functional unit involves the combined control and monitoring functions of an internal combustion engine working in parallel with a permanent magnet synchronous motor. The control algorithm for the synchronous motor has been simulated using VHDL-AMS. The global message system is supported by FlexCAN and the task scheduler system is supported by a priority based OS (e.g., OSEK or AUTOSAR).
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Stability of Transmission Clutch Engagement with Temperature-Dependent ATF Friction

2007-10-29
2007-01-3977
Multiple plate disc clutches are used extensively for shifting gears in automatic transmissions. In the active clutches that engage or disengage during a shift the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) and friction material experience large changes in pressure, P, sliding speed, v, and temperature, T. The coefficient of friction, μ, of the ATF and friction material is a function of these variables so μ = μ(P,v,T) also changes during clutch engagement. These changes in friction coefficient can lead to noise or vibration if the ATF properties and clutch friction material are improperly matched. A theoretical understanding of what causes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) in shifting clutches is valuable for the development of an ATF suitable for a particular friction material. Here we present a theoretical model that identifies the slope, ∂μ/∂T, of the coefficient of friction with respect to temperature as a major contributor to the damping in a clutch during engagement.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Frontal Impact of a Formula SAE Vehicle

2006-12-05
2006-01-3627
The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center. Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video.
Technical Paper

Use of a Designed Experiment to Determine the Optimal Method to Join Injection-Molded Parts to Pultrusions

2006-10-31
2006-01-3575
A coupler has been developed to prevent windshield wiper systems from being damaged by excessive loads that can occur when the normal wiping pattern is restricted. The coupler is composed of a pultruded composite rod with injection-molded plastic spherical joints (a.k.a. sockets) attached at either end. The sockets are used to attach the coupler to the crank and rocker of the windshield wiper linkage. Because the loads exerted on a coupler vary in magnitude and direction during a wiping cycle, the joint between the sockets and the pultruded composite rod must be robust. The paradigm for attaching sockets to steel couplers (i.e. over-molding the sockets around holes stamped into the ends of traditional steel couplers) was applied to the pultruded rods, tested, and found to produce inadequate joint strength. This paper details the methodology that was employed to produce and optimize an acceptable means to attach the injection-molded sockets to the pultruded rods.
Technical Paper

Verification and Validation of a Safety-Critical Steer-By-Wire System Using DO-178B

2006-04-03
2006-01-1447
The application of DO-178B for the verification and validation of the safety-critical aspects of a steer-by-wire sub-system of a vehicle by using a spiral development model is discussed. The project was performed within a capstone design course at Kettering University. Issues including lessons learned regarding requirements, specifications, testing, verification, and validation activities as required by DO-178B are summarized.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Combustion Parameters Using Engine Speed Fluctuation Measurements

2005-05-16
2005-01-2533
The combustion process in an IC engine is of significant importance for its noise and vibration characteristics in the vehicle. Describing the combustion process with thermodynamic metrics typically demands extensive instrumentation of the engine to obtain the cylinder pressure from the combustion chamber. This time consuming task often requires, that the engine be removed from the vehicle, instrumented with pressure transducers, and then either reinstalled in the vehicle and tested or installed in a test cell and evaluated. This paper describes a new relatively simple approach towards examining important combustion parameters. The technique is based on statistical analysis of the crankshaft's speed fluctuation. This approach requires relatively simple instrumentation of the engine and is therefore more applicable for vehicle level investigations.
Technical Paper

Cervical Range of Motion Data in Children

2006-04-03
2006-01-1140
The “Range-of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Children” study is a collaboration between Kettering University and McLaren Regional Medical Center in Flint, Michigan to quantify and establish benchmarks of “normal” range of motion (ROM) in children. The results will be analyzed to determine mean and standard deviation of degrees of rotation and used to improve the occupant protection in motor vehicles, sports equipment and benefits of physical therapy. The data will be invaluable in the development of computational models to analyze processes involving children in motion.
Technical Paper

Flash Temperature in Clutches

2005-10-24
2005-01-3890
Sliding contact between friction surfaces occurs in numerous torque transfer elements: torque converter clutches, shifting clutches, launch or starting clutches, limited slip differential clutches, and in the meshing of gear teeth under load. The total temperature in a friction interface is the sum of the equilibrium temperature with no sliding and a transient temperature rise, the flash temperature, caused by the work done while sliding. In a wet shifting clutch the equilibrium temperature is typically the bulk oil temperature and the flash temperature is the temperature rise during clutch engagement. The flash temperature is an important factor in the performance and durability of a clutch since it affects such things as the reactivity of the sliding surfaces and lubricant constituents (e.g., oxidation) and thermal stress in the components. Knowing how high the flash temperature becomes is valuable for the formulation of ATF, gear oil, engine oil and other lubricants.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for the 2005 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2005-10-24
2005-01-3679
Kettering University's Clean Snowmobile Challenge student design team has developed a new robust and innovative snowmobile for the 2005 competition. This snowmobile dramatically reduces exhaust and noise emissions and improves fuel economy compared with a conventional snowmobile. Kettering University has utilized a modified snowmobile in-line four cylinder, four-stroke, engine. The team added an electronically-controlled fuel-injection system with oxygen sensor feedback to this engine. This engine has been installed into a 2003 Yamaha RX-1 snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions have been further minimized through the use of a customized catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system. A newly designed and tuned exhaust as well as several chassis treatments have aided in minimizing noise emissions.
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