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Journal Article

A Comparison of 25 High Speed Tire Disablements Involving Full and Partial Tread Separations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0776
Tire tread separation events, a category of tire disablements, can be sub-categorized into two main types of separations. These include full tread separations, in which the tread around the entire circumference of the tire separates from the tire carcass, and partial tread separations, in which a portion of the tread separates and the flap remains attached to the tire for an extended period of time. In either case, the tire can remain inflated or lose air. Relatively, there have been few partial tire tread separation tests presented in the literature compared to full tread separation tests. In this study, the results of 25 full and partial tire tread separation tests, conducted with a variety of vehicles at highway speeds, are reported. Cases in which the tire remains inflated and loses air pressure are both considered. The testing was performed on a straight section of road and primarily focused on rear tire disablements.
Journal Article

Tire Mark Striations: Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-1468
Previous work demonstrated that the orientation of tire mark striations can be used to infer the braking actions of the driver [1]. An equation that related tire mark striation angle to longitudinal tire slip, the mathematical definition of braking, was presented. This equation can be used to quantify the driver’s braking input based on the physical evidence. Braking input levels will affect the speed of a yawing vehicle and quantifying the amount of braking can increase the accuracy of a speed analysis. When using this technique in practice, it is helpful to understand the sensitivity and uncertainties of the equation. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the equation are explored and presented in this study. The results help to formulate guidelines for the practical application of the method and expected accuracy under specified conditions. A case study is included that demonstrates the analysis of tire mark striations deposited during a real-world accident.
Technical Paper

Nighttime Visibility in Varying Moonlight Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1005
When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential effect of moonlight is sometimes questioned. To assess this potential effect, methods typically used to quantify visibility were performed during conditions with no moon and with a full moon. In the full moon condition, measurements were collected from initial moon rise until the moon reached peak azimuth. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination at the test surface were measured in both no moon and full moon scenarios. Additionally, a vehicle with activated low beam headlamps was positioned in the testing area and the change in illumination at two locations forward of the vehicle was recorded at thirty-minute intervals as the moon rose to the highest position in the sky. Also, two separate luminance readings were recorded during the test intervals, one location 75 feet in front and to the left of the vehicle, and another 150 feet forward of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Data Acquisition using Smart Phone Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1461
There are numerous publically available smart phone applications designed to track the speed and position of the user. By accessing the phones built in GPS receivers, these applications record the position over time of the phone and report the record on the phone itself, and typically on the application’s website. These applications range in cost from free to a few dollars, with some, that advertise greater functionality, costing significantly higher. This paper examines the reliability of the data reported through these applications, and the potential for these applications to be useful in certain conditions where monitoring and recording vehicle or pedestrian movement is needed. To analyze the reliability of the applications, three of the more popular and widely used tracking programs were downloaded to three different smart phones to represent a good spectrum of operating platforms.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Review and Extension of Two Decades of Research Related to PC-Crash Simulation Software

2018-04-03
2018-01-0523
PC-Crash is a vehicular accident simulation software that is widely used by the accident reconstruction community. The goal of this article is to review the prior literature that has addressed the capabilities of PC-Crash and its accuracy and reliability for various applications (planar collisions, rollovers, and human motion). In addition, this article aims to add additional analysis of the capabilities of PC-Crash for simulating planar collisions and rollovers. Simulation analysis of five planar collisions originally reported and analyzed by Bailey [2000] are reexamined. For all five of these collisions, simulations were obtained with the actual impact speeds that exhibited excellent visual agreement with the physical evidence. These simulations demonstrate that, for each case, the PC-Crash software had the ability to generate a simulation that matched the actual impact speeds and the known physical evidence.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Multi-View Photogrammetry Software for Documenting Vehicle Crush

2016-04-05
2016-01-1475
Video and photo based photogrammetry software has many applications in the accident reconstruction community including documentation of vehicles and scene evidence. Photogrammetry software has developed in its ease of use, cost, and effectiveness in determining three dimensional data points from two dimensional photographs. Contemporary photogrammetry software packages offer an automated solution capable of generating dense point clouds with millions of 3D data points from multiple images. While alternative modern documentation methods exist, including LiDAR technologies such as 3D scanning, which provide the ability to collect millions of highly accurate points in just a few minutes, the appeal of automated photogrammetry software as a tool for collecting dimensional data is the minimal equipment, equipment costs and ease of use.
Journal Article

Speed Analysis of Yawing Passenger Vehicles Following a Tire Tread Detachment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0418
This paper presents yaw testing of vehicles with tread removed from tires at various locations. A 2004 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2003 Ford Expedition were included in the test series. The vehicles were accelerated up to speed and a large steering input was made to induce yaw. Speed at the beginning of the tire mark evidence varied between 33 mph and 73 mph. Both vehicles were instrumented to record over the ground speed, steering angle, yaw angle and in some tests, wheel speeds. The tire marks on the roadway were surveyed and photographed. The Critical Speed Formula has long been used by accident reconstructionists for estimating a vehicle’s speed at the beginning of yaw tire marks. The method has been validated by previous researchers to calculate the speed of a vehicle with four intact tires. This research extends the Critical Speed Formula to include yawing vehicles following a tread detachment event.
Technical Paper

Two Phase Heavy Truck Acceleration Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0411
There have been several papers published over the past 25 years regarding the acceleration of heavy trucks, including different loading conditions, drivetrain configurations, and driving techniques. The papers provide a large data set that measures the speed, distance, and time of the vehicles during acceleration testing and present the data in tabular or graphical formats. Although the data as presented can be useful, it can be challenging to pore over all the data to determine the correct set for a specific application in accident reconstruction. As of this paper’s date of publication, there are approximately eight relevant papers with a total of 268 acceleration tests performed, spanning many years. This paper reviews all the available published literature and summarizes the relevant data in a comprehensive list of accelerations for different heavy truck configurations, which provides a valuable resource to the accident reconstruction field.
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