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Technical Paper

Quantification of Intake System Noise Using an Experimental Source-Transfer-Receiver Model

1999-05-17
1999-01-1659
Design optimisation with respect to interior noise is currently a topic of great concern for the automotive industry. An essential element in this process is to obtain a correct understanding of the various noise sources which are present, and the ways in which these sources propagate to the critical receiver. An experimental source-transfer-receiver methodology is presented, that allows quantifying the structure borne and airborne source strength of the intake system components and its contribution to the interior noise. The method allows interior noise optimisation after identification of the dominant contributors. The methodology is applied to identify the noise contribution of the air intake system to the interior noise of an 8-cylinder upper class vehicle. Correlation of the Structure Borne Transfer Path Analysis and Airborne Source Quantification models with physical decoupling experiments demonstrates a high correspondence.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1656
This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Sound Quality System for Engineers

2001-03-05
2001-01-3834
In the eighties, the main concern in the automotive industry from a designer's standpoint was a level issue. In the nineties, the market has put more stringent requirements on the automotive industry with respect to noise in general and psychoacoustics. The governments have imposed lower limits with respect to pass-by noise standards. Customers are spending more time in their car than in the past and are demanding acoustical comfort. All of this is leading to an environment where a sound quality system is becoming a daily tool in the design and trouble-shooting world. This paper describes what should be looked for in a sound, how to quantify these properties and what tools are needed. These steps are then applied in a case study.
Technical Paper

Industrial Applicability of Modal Analysis on Operating Data, 2001

2001-03-05
2001-01-3833
Traditionally, vibration analysis in operating conditions (on the road or on a bench) had to be combined with experimental modal analysis in controlled laboratory conditions in order to understand the modal behaviour of the structure. This requires additional measurements, costs and time. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test and hence the vibration modes from the modal test might not be representative for the active modes in operation conditions. The need for a capability of doing a modal analysis on data from operating conditions is obvious. Over the last years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. Each method needs to make a number of assumptions and has some limitations.
Technical Paper

Advances in Industrial Modal Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3832
One of the scientific fields where, for already more than 20 years, system identification plays a crucial role is this of structural dynamics and vibro-acoustic system optimization. The experimental approach is based on the “Modal Analysis” concept. The present paper reviews the test procedure and system identification principles of this approach. The main focus though is on the real problems with which engineers, performing modal analysis on complex structures on a daily basis, are currently confronted. The added value of several new testing approaches (laser methods, smart transducers…) and identification algorithms (spatial domain, subspace, maximum likelihood,..) for solving these problems is shown. The discussed elements are illustrated with a number of industrial case studies.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Engine Noise Radiation through the use of Acoustic Transfer Vectors - A Case Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1514
This paper presents the numerical modeling of noise radiated by an engine, using the so-called Acoustic Transfer Vectors and Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors concept. Acoustic Transfer Vectors are input-output relations between the normal structural velocity of the radiating surface and the sound pressure level at a specific field point and can thus be interpreted as an ensemble of Acoustic Transfer Functions from the surface nodes to a single field point or microphone position. The modal counter part establishes the same acoustic transfer expressed in modal coordinates of the radiating structure. The method is used to evaluate the noise radiated during an engine run-up in the frequency domain. The dynamics of the engine is described using a finite element model loaded with a rpm-dependent excitation. The effectiveness of the method in terms of calculation speed, compared with classical boundary element methods, is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Measuring a Geometry by Photogrammetry: Evaluation of the Approach in View of Experimental Modal Analysis on Automotive Structures

2001-04-30
2001-01-1473
The very first step when starting an experimental modal analysis project is the definition of the geometry used for visualization of the resulting mode shapes. This geometry includes measurement points with a label and corresponding coordinates, and usually also connections and surfaces to allow a good visualization of the measured mode. This step, even if it sounds straightforward, can be quite time consuming and is often done in a rather approximate way. Photogrammetry is a technique that extracts 2D or 3D information through the process of analyzing and interpreting photographs. It is widely used for the creation of topographic maps or city maps, and more and more for quick modeling of civil engineering structures or accident reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of this technique in the context of modal testing of automotive structures.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Equivalent Modeling for Virtual Car Sound Synthesis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1540
The pressure on development cycles in the automotive industry forces the acoustical engineers to create awareness of sound quality in the early stages of development, perhaps even before a physical prototype is available. Currently, designers have few tools to help them listen to their “virtual” models. For the design of a synthesis platform of in-vehicle binaural sound, the sound should be modeled with almost identical sound quality perception. A concept is presented where the total sound of a vehicle is split in a number of components, each with its own sound characteristics. These characteristics are described in a signal model that allows the analysis of an existing sound into a limited number of signal components: orders-frequency spectra, time envelopes and time recordings.
Technical Paper

Industrial Applicability of Modal Analysis on Operating Data, 1999

1999-05-17
1999-01-1783
Traditionally, vibration analysis in operating conditions (on the road or on a bench) had to be combined with experimental modal analysis in controlled laboratory conditions in order to understand the modal behaviour of the structure. This requires additional measurements, costs and time. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test and hence the vibration modes from the modal test might not be representative for the active modes in operation conditions. The need for a capability of doing a modal analysis on data from operating conditions is obvious. Over the last years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. Each method needs to make a number of assumptions and has some limitations.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Suspension Analysis in View of Road Noise Optimization

1993-05-01
931343
As powertrain noise is better and better controlled, road inputs become more important. The trend to mount 6 cylinder engines in smaller cars also emphasizes the importance of road induced noise. A method to qualify and quantify the different contributions is presented and illustrated. This methodology is based on a novel combination of existing technology: transferpath analysis, traditionally used for ranking of powertrain inputs on one hand and principal component analysis, traditionally used for visualisation of operating shapes in a multiple uncorrelated input environment. As suspension inputs represent multiple incoherent sources, the classical vector summation used in noise path analysis is not applicable. On the other hand, root mean square summation of all contributions does not keep track of phase relations between suspension-body connections which are important in the understanding of the global picture.
Technical Paper

Using Mechanical-Acoustic Reciprocity for Diagnosis of Structure Borne Sound in Vehicles

1993-05-01
931340
The low frequency interior noise in cars is for a large part the result of structure borne excitation. The transfer of the structure borne sound involves a large number of components of the engine suspension, wheel suspension and chassis which are all potentially contributing to the overall noise level. This process can be analyzed through a combination of transfer function measurements with operational measurements under normal conditions. This technique, called transfer path analysis, requires large numbers of transfer function measurements with excitation of the body or cabin at the rubber mountings. Unfortunately, bad access to these crucial measurement locations causes either high instrumentation and measurement effort or less accurate measurement data. The practicality and quality of the measurements can be improved by using reciprocal measurements for the mechano-acoustic transfer of the body or cabin structure; a loudspeaker in the cavity is used for the reciprocal excitation.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engineering for Optimized Structural Dynamics Analysis

1992-04-01
920909
“Noise and vibration are not invented here!”. Undesirable structural dynamic behaviour is normally experienced on final assemblies, by which time the underlying cause of the problem is difficult to solve intuitively. Solving the problems classically involves the partial breakdown of assemblies and the application of various structural dynamics testing and analysis procedures. Preferably, noise and vibration problems should be avoided by designing the product right the first time, by the use of various integrated analysis and testing disciplines, from the component level to the final assembly. Such an approach is referred to, in a broader sense, by trendy themes as concurrent engineering, forward engineering, simultaneous engineering.... This paper analyzes trends in analytical and experimental structural dynamics toward better integration of the various discipline oriented techniques that are currently used.
Technical Paper

Updating of Dynamic Finite Element Models Based on Experimental Receptances and the Reduced Analytical Dynamic Stiffness Matrix

1995-05-01
951247
This paper presents a model updating method based on experimental receptances. The presented method minimises the so called ‘indirect receptance difference’. First, the reduced analytical dynamic stiffness matrix is expressed as an approximate, linearised function of the updating parameters. In a numerically stable, iterative procedure, this reduced analytical dynamic stiffness matrix is changed in such a way that the analytical receptances match the experimental receptances at the updating frequencies. The updating frequencies are a set of selected frequency points in the frequency range of interest. Some considerations about an optimal selection of the updating frequencies are given. Finally, a mixed static-dynamic reduction scheme is discussed. Dynamic reduction of the analytical dynamic stiffness matrix at each updating frequency is physically exact, but it involves a great computational effort.
Technical Paper

Identification, Quantification and Reduction of Structural- Borne Road Noise in a Mid-Size Passenger Car

1996-02-01
960195
This paper presents the measurement & analysis procedures and the results of a complete road noise identification and reduction project on a midsize passenger car. Operational interior noise signals and structural accelerations are measured for several test conditions. The operating data are decomposed into sets of mathematically independent phenomena by Principal Component Analysis. Operating Deflection Shape Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis are applied to each of these independent phenomena. Critical transfer paths are thus identified and quantified. The interior sound level is amplified when the frequency content of the transmitted energy coincides with structural resonances or standing waves of the interior car cavity. The vehicle is dynamically characterized by Experimental Structural Modal Analysis and by Acoustic Modal Analysis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Low Frequency Noise Contributions of Interior Vehicle Body Panels in Normal Operation

1996-02-01
960194
Low frequency noise from engine- and wheel-vibrations often dominates the interior noise spectrum in vehicles. For the optimization of vehicle bodies it is necessary to know the contribution of individual body panels to sound pressures at the passengers ear. An experimental approach is presented which makes use of reciprocal acoustic transfer function measurements and surface acceleration measurements in normal road operation. This method, called Airborne Source Quantification, has been applied as a diagnostic tool to the interior noise of a four cylinder diesel engined van.
Technical Paper

Time-Domain Source Contribution Analysis Method for In-Room Pass-By Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1609
This paper presents a new time-domain source contribution analysis method for in-room pass-by noise. The core of the method is a frequency-domain ASQ model (Airborne Source Quantification) representing each noise generating component (engine, exhaust, left and right tyres, etc.) by a number of acoustic sources. The ASQ model requires the measurement of local FRF's and acoustic noise transfer functions to identify the operational loads from nearby pressure indicator responses and propagate the loads to the various target microphones on the sides of the vehicle. Once a good ASQ model is obtained, FIR filters are constructed, allowing a time-domain synthesis of the various source contributions to each target microphone. The synthesized target response signals are finally recombined into a pass-by sound by taking into account the speed profile of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Drive-by Noise Based on Numerically Evaluated Source-Receiver Transfer Functions Employing the FMBEM

2011-05-17
2011-01-1610
Prediction of the drive-by noise level in the early design stage of an automotive vehicle is feasible if the source signatures and source-receiver transfer functions may be determined from simulations based on the available CAD/CAE models. This paper reports on the performance of a drive-by noise synthesis procedure in which the transfer functions are numerically evaluated by employing the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM). The proposed synthesis procedure first computes the steady-state receiver contributions of the sources as appearing from a number of vehicle positions along the drive path. In a second step, these contributions are then combined into a single transient signal from a moving vehicle for each source-receiver pair by means of a travel time correction.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
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