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Technical Paper

Quantification of Intake System Noise Using an Experimental Source-Transfer-Receiver Model

1999-05-17
1999-01-1659
Design optimisation with respect to interior noise is currently a topic of great concern for the automotive industry. An essential element in this process is to obtain a correct understanding of the various noise sources which are present, and the ways in which these sources propagate to the critical receiver. An experimental source-transfer-receiver methodology is presented, that allows quantifying the structure borne and airborne source strength of the intake system components and its contribution to the interior noise. The method allows interior noise optimisation after identification of the dominant contributors. The methodology is applied to identify the noise contribution of the air intake system to the interior noise of an 8-cylinder upper class vehicle. Correlation of the Structure Borne Transfer Path Analysis and Airborne Source Quantification models with physical decoupling experiments demonstrates a high correspondence.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Exhaust Acoustics

1999-05-17
1999-01-1665
Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1656
This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Sound Quality System for Engineers

2001-03-05
2001-01-3834
In the eighties, the main concern in the automotive industry from a designer's standpoint was a level issue. In the nineties, the market has put more stringent requirements on the automotive industry with respect to noise in general and psychoacoustics. The governments have imposed lower limits with respect to pass-by noise standards. Customers are spending more time in their car than in the past and are demanding acoustical comfort. All of this is leading to an environment where a sound quality system is becoming a daily tool in the design and trouble-shooting world. This paper describes what should be looked for in a sound, how to quantify these properties and what tools are needed. These steps are then applied in a case study.
Technical Paper

Industrial Applicability of Modal Analysis on Operating Data, 2001

2001-03-05
2001-01-3833
Traditionally, vibration analysis in operating conditions (on the road or on a bench) had to be combined with experimental modal analysis in controlled laboratory conditions in order to understand the modal behaviour of the structure. This requires additional measurements, costs and time. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test and hence the vibration modes from the modal test might not be representative for the active modes in operation conditions. The need for a capability of doing a modal analysis on data from operating conditions is obvious. Over the last years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. Each method needs to make a number of assumptions and has some limitations.
Technical Paper

Advances in Industrial Modal Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-3832
One of the scientific fields where, for already more than 20 years, system identification plays a crucial role is this of structural dynamics and vibro-acoustic system optimization. The experimental approach is based on the “Modal Analysis” concept. The present paper reviews the test procedure and system identification principles of this approach. The main focus though is on the real problems with which engineers, performing modal analysis on complex structures on a daily basis, are currently confronted. The added value of several new testing approaches (laser methods, smart transducers…) and identification algorithms (spatial domain, subspace, maximum likelihood,..) for solving these problems is shown. The discussed elements are illustrated with a number of industrial case studies.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

2000-06-12
2000-05-0291
The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

byteflight~A new protocol for safety-critical applications

2000-06-12
2000-05-0220
The permanently increasing number of convenience and safety functions leads to higher complexity of in-car electronics and the rapidly growing amount of sensors, actuators and electronic control units places higher demands on high- speed data communication protocols. Safety-critical systems need deterministic protocols with fault-tolerant behavior. The need for on-board diagnosis calls for flexible use of bandwidth and an ever-increasing number of functions necessitates a flexible means of extending the system. None of the communication solutions available on the market until now (like CAN or TTP) have been able to fulfill all these demands. To solve these problems, BMW together with several semiconductor companies has developed a new protocol for safety-critical applications in automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Engine Noise Radiation through the use of Acoustic Transfer Vectors - A Case Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1514
This paper presents the numerical modeling of noise radiated by an engine, using the so-called Acoustic Transfer Vectors and Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors concept. Acoustic Transfer Vectors are input-output relations between the normal structural velocity of the radiating surface and the sound pressure level at a specific field point and can thus be interpreted as an ensemble of Acoustic Transfer Functions from the surface nodes to a single field point or microphone position. The modal counter part establishes the same acoustic transfer expressed in modal coordinates of the radiating structure. The method is used to evaluate the noise radiated during an engine run-up in the frequency domain. The dynamics of the engine is described using a finite element model loaded with a rpm-dependent excitation. The effectiveness of the method in terms of calculation speed, compared with classical boundary element methods, is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Measuring a Geometry by Photogrammetry: Evaluation of the Approach in View of Experimental Modal Analysis on Automotive Structures

2001-04-30
2001-01-1473
The very first step when starting an experimental modal analysis project is the definition of the geometry used for visualization of the resulting mode shapes. This geometry includes measurement points with a label and corresponding coordinates, and usually also connections and surfaces to allow a good visualization of the measured mode. This step, even if it sounds straightforward, can be quite time consuming and is often done in a rather approximate way. Photogrammetry is a technique that extracts 2D or 3D information through the process of analyzing and interpreting photographs. It is widely used for the creation of topographic maps or city maps, and more and more for quick modeling of civil engineering structures or accident reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of this technique in the context of modal testing of automotive structures.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Equivalent Modeling for Virtual Car Sound Synthesis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1540
The pressure on development cycles in the automotive industry forces the acoustical engineers to create awareness of sound quality in the early stages of development, perhaps even before a physical prototype is available. Currently, designers have few tools to help them listen to their “virtual” models. For the design of a synthesis platform of in-vehicle binaural sound, the sound should be modeled with almost identical sound quality perception. A concept is presented where the total sound of a vehicle is split in a number of components, each with its own sound characteristics. These characteristics are described in a signal model that allows the analysis of an existing sound into a limited number of signal components: orders-frequency spectra, time envelopes and time recordings.
Technical Paper

Tire and Car Contribution and Interaction to Low Frequency Interior Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1528
A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
Technical Paper

Industrial Applicability of Modal Analysis on Operating Data, 1999

1999-05-17
1999-01-1783
Traditionally, vibration analysis in operating conditions (on the road or on a bench) had to be combined with experimental modal analysis in controlled laboratory conditions in order to understand the modal behaviour of the structure. This requires additional measurements, costs and time. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test and hence the vibration modes from the modal test might not be representative for the active modes in operation conditions. The need for a capability of doing a modal analysis on data from operating conditions is obvious. Over the last years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. Each method needs to make a number of assumptions and has some limitations.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

1999-10-25
1999-01-3460
Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

Suspension Analysis in View of Road Noise Optimization

1993-05-01
931343
As powertrain noise is better and better controlled, road inputs become more important. The trend to mount 6 cylinder engines in smaller cars also emphasizes the importance of road induced noise. A method to qualify and quantify the different contributions is presented and illustrated. This methodology is based on a novel combination of existing technology: transferpath analysis, traditionally used for ranking of powertrain inputs on one hand and principal component analysis, traditionally used for visualisation of operating shapes in a multiple uncorrelated input environment. As suspension inputs represent multiple incoherent sources, the classical vector summation used in noise path analysis is not applicable. On the other hand, root mean square summation of all contributions does not keep track of phase relations between suspension-body connections which are important in the understanding of the global picture.
Technical Paper

Using Mechanical-Acoustic Reciprocity for Diagnosis of Structure Borne Sound in Vehicles

1993-05-01
931340
The low frequency interior noise in cars is for a large part the result of structure borne excitation. The transfer of the structure borne sound involves a large number of components of the engine suspension, wheel suspension and chassis which are all potentially contributing to the overall noise level. This process can be analyzed through a combination of transfer function measurements with operational measurements under normal conditions. This technique, called transfer path analysis, requires large numbers of transfer function measurements with excitation of the body or cabin at the rubber mountings. Unfortunately, bad access to these crucial measurement locations causes either high instrumentation and measurement effort or less accurate measurement data. The practicality and quality of the measurements can be improved by using reciprocal measurements for the mechano-acoustic transfer of the body or cabin structure; a loudspeaker in the cavity is used for the reciprocal excitation.
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

1985-05-15
850992
BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engineering for Optimized Structural Dynamics Analysis

1992-04-01
920909
“Noise and vibration are not invented here!”. Undesirable structural dynamic behaviour is normally experienced on final assemblies, by which time the underlying cause of the problem is difficult to solve intuitively. Solving the problems classically involves the partial breakdown of assemblies and the application of various structural dynamics testing and analysis procedures. Preferably, noise and vibration problems should be avoided by designing the product right the first time, by the use of various integrated analysis and testing disciplines, from the component level to the final assembly. Such an approach is referred to, in a broader sense, by trendy themes as concurrent engineering, forward engineering, simultaneous engineering.... This paper analyzes trends in analytical and experimental structural dynamics toward better integration of the various discipline oriented techniques that are currently used.
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