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Technical Paper

A Passive Solution to Differential Transient Cooling Issues Using Phase Change Materials

Thermal management systems (TMS) of armored ground vehicle designs are often incapable of sustained heat rejection during high tractive effort conditions and ambient conditions. During these conditions, which mainly consist of high torque low speed operations, gear oil temperatures can rise over the allowable 275°F limit in less than twenty minutes. This work outlines an approach to temporarily store excess heat generated by the differential during high tractive effort situations through the use of a passive Phase Change Material (PCM) retrofit thereby extending the operating time, reducing temperature transients, and limiting overheating. A numerical heat transfer model has been developed based on a conceptual vehicle differential TMS. The model predicts the differential fluid temperature response with and without a PCM retrofit. The developed model captures the physics of the phase change processes to predict the transient heat absorption and rejection processes.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Evaluation on Formula SAE Vehicles

Aerodynamics plays an important role in the dynamic behavior of a vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate external and internal aerodynamics of the 1999 and 2000 Lawrence Technological University Formula SAE vehicles. The external aerodynamic study will be limited to form and interference drag and the evaluation of lift. The internal aerodynamics study will be limited to ram air to the intake, heat exchanger, and oil cooler.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Nanofluids on Heat Transfer Performance of a Motorcycle Radiator

In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on automotive engine cooling was experimentally studied. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube), and SiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter ranging between 1 and 100 nm were mixed with distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to generate uniform particle dispersion in the fluid. A compatibility test was carried out on all nanofluids and it was found that TiC, MWNT, and Si3N4 nanoparticles settled and separated from the fluid within 3 hours after preparation. The engine cooling performance testing setup consisted of an Aprilia SXV 450 engine, the nanofluid cooling loop, a radiator, a fan, etc. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTD’s) were attached to the inlet and outlet of the radiator hose to monitor the temperature changes taking place in the cooling system. A flowmeter was attached to the inlet hose of the radiator to monitor the coolant flow rate.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Vortex Generation on Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Enhancement using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

In this experimental work, a flow field test system embedded with different vortex generators was installed to investigate the impact of vortex generation on heat transfer of air flow in a horizontal channel, and the flow structure was evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Three different configurations of vortex generators were fitted vertically on a flat plate, at attack angles of 15o, 30o, and 45o, and tested at four different incoming air velocities. An axial fan was used to supply the flow of air through the test section. The effects of Reynolds number, attack angle, and the shape of vortex generators were examined in this work. The experimental results showed that, the presence of vortex generators had considerable effect on temperature distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer augmentation in the channel flow.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Heat Recovery System Study in Internal Combustion Engines

Strict regulations exist in different countries with respect to vehicular emissions by their respective government bodies requiring automakers to design fuel-efficient vehicles. Fuel economy and carbon emission are the main factors affecting these regulations. In this competitive industry to make fuel efficient vehicles and reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in internal combustions has led to various developments. Exhaust Heat Recovery System (EHRS) plays a vital role in improving powertrain efficiency. In this system, heat rejected by the engine is reused to heat the vehicle fluids faster (for example, engine coolant, engine oil, etc.) correspondingly reducing harmful gas emissions. In internal combustion engines, generally only 25% of the fuel energy is converted into useful power output and approximately 40% of it is lost in exhaust heat. Certain studies show that by using the EHRS, the power output can be increased to 40% and the heat loss can be reduced to as much as 25%.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of the Effect of Longitudinal Vortex Generators on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Pressure Drop in a Rectangular Channel

Longitudinal vortex generation is a common technique for enhancing heat transfer performance. It can be achieved by employing small flow manipulators, known as vortex generators (VGs), which are placed on the heat-transfer surface. The vortex generators can generate longitudinal vortices, which strongly disturb the flow structure, and have a significant influence on the velocity and temperature distributions, causing improved thermal transport. In this work, numerical simulations are conducted for a horizontal rectangular channel with and without a pair of longitudinal vortex generators. The vortex generators are fitted vertically on the bottom surface of the channel. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis aims to acquire a better understanding of the flow structure and heat transfer mechanisms induced by longitudinal vortex generation. The simulation is performed using ANSYS Fluent, and three flow inlet velocities are considered: 1.38 m/s, 1.18 m/s, 0.98 m/s.