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Technical Paper

NASA's On-line Project Information System (OPIS) Attributes and Implementation

The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is a LAMP-based (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) system being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to improve Agency information transfer and data availability, largely for improvement of system analysis and engineering. The tool will enable users to investigate NASA technology development efforts, connect with experts, and access technology development data. OPIS is currently being developed for NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project. Within OPIS, NASA ELS Managers assign projects to Principal Investigators (PI), track responsible individuals and institutions, and designate reporting assignments. Each PI populates a “Project Page” with a project overview, team member information, files, citations, and images. PI's may also delegate on-line report viewing and editing privileges to specific team members. Users can browse or search for project and member information.
Technical Paper

A Status Report of NASA's On-line Project Information System (OPIS), a Tool for Analysis-Focused Data

The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is a web-based database developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to improve information transfer and data availability for Exploration Life Support (ELS) projects. The tool enables users to investigate NASA technology development efforts, connect with knowledgeable experts, and to communicate important information. Within OPIS, Principal Investigators (PI's) post technical, administrative, and project participant information for other users to access through browse and search mechanisms. PI's are given technical data reporting requirements in the form of annual report templates, to assure that the information reported satisfies the most critical data needs of various ELS user groups. OPIS fulfills data and functionality needs of key user groups in the ELS Community through data solicitation, centralization, and distribution. The tool also circumvents data loss with ELS participant turnover.
Technical Paper

ISS ECLS System Analysis Software Tools - An Overview and Assessment

There have been many software programs that have provided simulations for the performance and operation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (ECLSS) in the International Space Station (ISS) and in the Space Shuttle. These programs have been applied for purposes in system analysis, flight analysis, and ECLSS studies. Flight and system analysis tasks are deemed important. Therefore, more manpower and resources added for such work is considered beneficial. System analysis covers design and trouble-shooting, the validation of Flight Rules, and the contingency analysis. During the engineering design phase, ECLSS modelers predict the performance and interaction of units in a process train. Simulation results can be useful in estimating equipment sizes and costs. This article has also used two examples to illustrate that many Flight Rules need to be validated using properly selected integrated programs.
Technical Paper

Immobilized Microbe Microgravity Water Processing System (IMMWPS) Flight Experiment Integrated Ground Test Program

This paper provides an overview of the IMMWPS Integrated Ground Test Program, completed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) during October and November 2001. The JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) has developed the IMMWPS orbital flight experiment to test the feasibility of a microbe-based water purifier for use in zero-gravity conditions. The IMMWPS design utilizes a Microbial Processor Assembly (MPA) inoculated with facultative anaerobes to convert organic contaminants in wastewater to carbon dioxide and biomass. The primary purpose of the ground test program was to verify functional operations and procedures. A secondary objective was to provide initial ground data for later comparison to on-orbit performance. This paper provides a description of the overall test program, including the test article hardware and the test sequence performed to simulate the anticipated space flight test program. In addition, a summary of significant results from the testing is provided.
Technical Paper

Considerations in Selection of Solid Waste Management Approaches in Long-Duration Space Missions

Solid Waste Management (SWM) systems of current and previous space flight missions have employed relatively uncomplicated methods of waste collection, storage and return to Earth. NASA's long-term objectives, however, will likely include human-rated missions that are longer in both duration and distance, with little to no opportunity for re-supply. Such missions will likely exert increased demands upon all sub-systems, particularly the SWM system. In order to provide guidance to SWM Research and Technology Development (R&TD) efforts and overall system development, the establishment of appropriate SWM system requirements is necessary. Because future long duration missions are not yet fully defined, thorough mission-specific requirements have not yet been drafted.
Technical Paper

Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions – Preliminary Results

Solid Waste Management (SWM) requirements need to be defined prior to determining what technologies should be developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project. Since future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architectures outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Life Support Requirements, Assumptions and Reference Missions

To effectively develop advanced life support technologies to support humans on future missions into space, the requirements for these missions must first be defined. How many people will go? Where will they go? What risks must be protected against? Since NASA does not officially establish new exploration programs until authorized by Congress, there are no program requirements documents or list of “planned missions” to refer to. Therefore, technology developers must look elsewhere for information on how and where their development efforts and concepts may be used. This paper summarizes the development of several sources designed to help Advanced Life Support researchers working to extend a human presence in space.
Technical Paper

A Mission Statement for Space Architecture

In an effort to define and advance the new discipline of Space Architecture, the AIAA technical subcommittee on Aerospace Architecture organized a Space Architecture Workshop that took place during the World Space Congress 2002 in Houston, Texas. One of the results of this workshop is a “Mission Statement for Space Architecture” that addresses the following core issues in a concise manner: definition, motivation, utility, required knowledge, and related disciplines. The workshop also addressed the typology and principles of space architecture, as well as basic philosophical guidelines for practitioners of this discipline. The mission statement, which was unanimously adopted by the workshop participants, reads as follows ([1], [2], [3]): “Space Architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space, responding to the deep human drive to explore and occupy new places.